Because now is possible to make cheap printed electronics, either using roll printing or inkjet or laser printer, that can be used to make electronic devices for third world. Medical / health care and agriculture / food production can use almost no cost electronics, like printed electronic thermometer that cost almost nothing, in third world. Because they cost almost nothing they can be given away for free by aid organisations etc. For consumer electronics there can be three different devices: personal digital assistant roll printed, that has no internet connection, only contact is physical contact with another device. It looks like Android TV stick or very small pocket calculator, and audio is by headphones only, and visual information using simplest form of video glasses made like Google cardboard virtual glasses. No display in device itself. Headphones (acoustic electric elements) and video glasses (black&white display) are made with printed electronics also. Battery is made using printed electronics, and touch keyboard and solar panel also that brings power to device. CPU is roll printed, if it is made at western factory hybrid printing with cheapest silicon memory (Dramexchange.com has "flash memory project price" 4,8 dollars cheapest for 128 gigabytes, so 0,0375 dollars is for 1 GB and about 300 megabytes is 0,01 dollars) can be used in CPU cache and for other memory, instead of RAM mass memory is cheapest mask ROM mostly and little RAM. If CPU is made at third world using inkjet printer or book printing machine also memory is roll printed. Cheapest "memory card" can be used in some devices (it is mask ROM, not RAM, mostly). There can be several different devices so if audio and video are headphones and video glasses only that can makes things cheaper, and solar panel only is separate thing. These can be plugged to device to another. Also some may lack battery so electricity is from direct contact to another device s battery or solar panel. Touch keyboard, printed electronics made, is multi-tap or chorded keypad type, only 6-7 keys are needed in chorded keypad, so Android TV stick shape device can have simple keyboard. Electronics is moulded on plastic like microchip package, battery and innards can not be changed, plastic mould is the surface of the device. So anot her option for device shape is like PC microprocessor in its plastic package, but in this case "microprocessor" is the whole device, CPU mmeory and battery etc. packed to cheapest SoC imaginable, cheap printed or otherwise cheap circuit and battery in shape and size of large PC processor, one side has 6-9 key multitap or chorded keypad, simple touch keyboard, and pressing those 9 capasitave membrane keys is only way to control device, video glasses and headphones are plugged directly to processor mould when used and solar panel also. So in this case "microprocessor" or SoC that otherwise is planted on PCB board, is the whole device itself, no PCB board or addtional package is needed for SoC, The SoC is itself a package, and membrane keypad on one side of chip is the controlling means and simple flat headphone jacks or video glasses are plugged to plastic mould of processor directly, and even small flat "memory card" can be used for additional memory if needed. This "microprocessor" can be put to pocket and user may have several different cheap 0,03 - 0,05 dollar price devices, one comes with ARM processor, another has x86, third C-RAM, fourth is additional GPU, fifth is another processor which is new structure and comes with modern new operating system, sixth is DSP, etc. Price is so low that these devices can be given away for free, like chepest headphones, video glasses, and solar panel, paid by aid organisations or commercial sponsors. Altough they are cheap, using them is possible to watch video, listen to music, play computer games, use it as PC etc. using clumsy 6-9 key keypad chorded keyboard or multitapping. Altough operating systems and games are 20 - 30 years old, concerning the usability of these devices, 20 year old Windows, Linux or early Symbian is perhaps OS for ARM or x86 devices. Electric cables needed for headphones, video glasses and solar panel are printed also, they are flat, not square, and electric contact plugs flat also, few millimeter wide. Cost minus CPU and memory is perhaps 0,01 dollars for battery, less than 0,01 dollar for keypad, solar panel 0,01 dollar, video glasses 0,01 dollar, headphones 0,01 dollar. CPU is 0,01 dollar, memory 0,01 dollar also. Together about 0,03 dollar device, with 0,03 dollar video glasses, headphones and solar panel. Price is so cheap that these devices can be given away for free by aid organisations or commercial sponsors. CPU licensing is problem, licence cost is much higher than electronics printing cost. But because latest tech is PragmaticIC 1 micron process for transistors, 1 micron is 1000 nm, those printed CPUs are much slower and larger than silicon chips, so 20 year old designs can be used. Electric power usage is concern, so mobile version of processors can be used. But because manufacturing volumes are much larger than silicin chips, for example A33 SoC cost 4 dollars, and Intel Atom quad-core tablet PC chip 5 dollars couple a years ago, about 1 dollar is perhaps license price for them. Manufacturing yields are about 10 000, or 100 000 tablet PCs or phones per manufacturer and model at largest, if not extremely popular model. But printed electronics can be made at scale of million or over at ease, so this 100-fold or 1000-fold increase in manufacturing brings similar amount of money to CPU license holder. And roll printed CPUs are about thousand times or more larger and slower than silicon chips, so they are thousand times less useful, so that way also license cost must be lower than ordinary silicon chip. License price can be tied to processor size, so if printed version is 100 times larger and slower it has 1/100th license cost and 1000 times larger 1/1000th license cost. Usability of large printed chips is so limited that license must be cheaper than ordinary silicon chip, however license holder can get same amount of money from printed electronics version than original silicon version because manufactering is much faster and bigger mass production than silicon chips. However printed versions are enormously slower and larger and worse than silicon version, however amount of profit earned is the same, even using 1/100th or 1/1000th license payment. These PDA style devices can be used as MP3 and video player, and typical PC duties, as game console etc, but without internet connection. Inkjet printers have 14400dpi accuracy In Epson Stylus and Screenjet 3100, meaning 1,76 micron. Laser printers have 9600 X 9600 dpi accuracy, 2,65 microns, offset book printing machines 600lpi, meaning perhaps 16 color cells per line, so 9600 dpi is accuracy, gravure and flexigraph book printers have higher accuracy, and some chinese factories advertise 14400 dpi book printing machines or package printing machines. If printed electronics is manufactured at third world country book factory, perhaps 2,3 or 2,5-2,55 micron transistor dimension is possible, and 3,5 micron if inkjet printed in some office in third world cheaply. Agfa has patented US pat 8232043B2 "Method of making lithographic printing plate" litho printer that uses 350-390nm laser, that is smaller than 1000nm printed electronics accuracy, but for book printing. However litho press can be changed to printed electronics production instead of books and pictures. Second kind of device can be "internet receiver", that has silicon CPU and GPU but everything else printed electronics, including colour display, and is like cell phone or tablet PC. But unlike them it can only receive information, not transreceive. This can be solution for using internet without pay, it is like radio or TV, and device has inbuild analog TV and radio like chinese cellphones, or digital radio also or digital TV (if third world countries have digital TV or radio ransmissions), and radio frequency receiver for internet. It cannot however send signals. Because it only receives, it can be used for free like radio. It scans multicast internet transmissions, multicast is one frequency transmission that can received by millions of people like radio or TV transmissions, in internet. Using NVOD (Near video on demand) style transmission, even Wikipedia with its 5,5 million pages can be used. 5,5 million pages has each 0,01 second time slot, usingdata compression and no pictures, dictionary is send toreceiver, when right page apperas it is automatically downloaded by receiver when right page mark is in the dictionary list, 0,01 sec makes 12 hours for 5 million pages, using 40-channel NVOD that is 0,3 hours, approx. 0-0,3 hours and avarage 0,15 hour (9 mins) to wait until searched Wikipedia page arrives. There can hundreads or thousands multicast internet mobile pages, some of them using NVOD if such as Wikipedia has large number of pages. If intermet connection can t be used then analog radio transmission can be used. Before analog modem internet connections ended they achieved 1 megabit/ second speed using data compression. Using analog audio channel transmission in ordinary radio, internet can be received. Public radio broadcasts in third world countries can include several channels dedicated to internet transmission. Even better would be analog TV transmissions, on e Tv channel uses several megaherz, so large amount of internet content can be transmitted. SECAM / OIRT TV is used in many ex-communist countries and it uses large bandwidth. Digital radio or TV would be even better internet transmission platform, but few third world countries have them. However nowadays even poorest countries have 4G (LTE, Wifi) internet connections, and 5G is coming with its gigabit/sec speed, so using radio or TV channels to multicast internet seems futile. Internet receiver is like ordinary radio, it only scans channels like radio, and those channels reach every internet receiver using same frequency and time slot shared with millions of users. Radio frequency communication: not perhaps nothing to with previous but US pat 5313457A1 "Code position modulation system", WO 2002065640A1 "Digital modulation device" Walker, "Multiple pulse per group keying" Charles Hartmann. Price of internet receiver is few dollars. Third device is internet transreceiver, ordinary cell phone or tablet PC, it comes with free internet connection and is commercially sponsored and is given free also because net connection is more expensive than device itself. Internet receiver can be sold, because it costs only few dollars and does not require paid net connection. It even cannot "connect" to internet, it just "listens" to it. So it is like radio, free of charge. There can easily be thousands of multicast channels, some like Wikipedia need perhaps few dozen NVOD-style channels if they have large amount of information, and other way around several net pages can use one multicast chanels if only 0,01 seconds is avarage page time. No audio or video (except regular internet TV and radio channels that are provided for free) and perhaps not even still pictures, only data compressed text. Allwinner A33 SoC cost 4 dollars 2015, single board Arduino type computers use it, price 8 dollars about. Now cheapest are 7 dollars (processor SoC 3,5 dollars?). Pine 64 uses 64 bit quad-core processor, price 15 dollars when introduced. So perhaps 64 bit quad-core processor cost 7,5 dollars then? If price if dropped like cheaper single board computer (about 20%) now processor SoC perhaps cost 6 dollars? So internet receiver can use 3,5 dollar 32 bit quad core SoC (without internet transreceiver, only receiver is used, making SoC cheaper), and free net "zeronet" transreceiver can use 6 dollar(?) 64 bit quad SoC. Both devices look like tablet PC, but display, touchscreen and battery is made using prunted electronics. Receiver is about 4-5 dollar price, and transreceiver (regular tablet PC) about 6,5 - 8 dollars, but paid by commercial sponsors. Operating systems are ordinary Android or Linux mobile, or Windows (Windows Surface Phone? Windows Phone? Windows Mobile?) for processors that are ARM or x86, and x86 not necessirely Intel Atom or Quark, Intel and AMD have licensed their x86 tech to chinese manufactures, and IBM its POWER processor. Because batteries, solar panel, touch keyboard (not necessiraly touchscreen), headphone acoustic elements and display can be made using coarse printed electronics, they are propably cheap. Cheapest magnetic memory available like mask ROM or cheapest slow RAM can be used as memory, and memory amount is low anyhow in these cheap devices. Only mermory and CPU and GPU is ordinary silicon chip. However cheapest, almost no cost PDA device has everything made to cheapest possible way, so even CPU can be roll printed, even roll printed using almost standard inkjet printer in third world country itself. Only way to share information using PDA or internet receiver physical contact to another device or"information loading station" where plugging device to loading station information can be changed between station users and loaded. Information station can be in every village, if not, every town at least. Altough internet receiver and transreceiver use normal ARM or x86 chips, PDA and other printed CPU or printed GPU devices can use 20 year old ARM or x86 or modern version with license (such as VIA Nano, Intel Atom /Quark, ARM A-55), but also some other, Linux /Windows compatible are Transmeta Efficeon, Elbrus, Kalray, Loongson and Cell and Mill processor. Some other like old Lisp machine (TI), Apollo PRISM or TRON/BTRON, old Cray processor 20-30 years ago if they are more efficient than x86 from same age. Transputer, systolic array, stack machine, dataflow, TTA, unikernel, Synthesis kernel (Massalin),"NISD: a framework for automatic narrow instruction set ", lambda calculus directly in hardware (inkjet printed hardware description language, SECD, CAM), hardware code abstraction, GreenArrays, Knupath Lambda Fabric, Rex Computing REX 256, GRVI Phalanx, Xputer HPRC are new concepts, and Warp processor too (that is different from old Warp machine, and "Hardware-based design flow" 2011 Altera floating point method suitable for Warp processors and other). All these need different programming and operating systems than normal chips. Large and slow printed electronic chips can be made faster using inexact computing (Rice university) or making processor asynchronous. Asynchronous and inexact principle can be combined, asynchronous processing corrects mistakes of inexact computing and rerun parts of program that are erratic. 0,25% mistake is suitable for CPU if speed and die size is improved, and 8% for GPU and signal processing, altough audio signal with 8% error rate is perhaps quite bad, but signal processor can leave errors incorrected, CPU need correction like memory circuits that have own error correction if inexact processing is used. Because GPU is more inexact than CPU and so more transistor efficient, mobile SoC can have large GPU and small CPU, otherway around than nowadays, and programs use both GPU and CPU capabilities simultaneusly (GPGPU computing), not only CPU and separate graphics only GPU like nowadays. Even unified CPU/GPU like UPU Harmony can be used. Inexact computing suits better for established x86 or ARM designs, almost normal programs can be used, asynchronous processing needs totally differint operating system. If CPU is other than ARM or x86, new concepts (inexact & asynchronous, unum computing etc.) can be used. Operating system must be so new for them too, like those aimed for internet of things, some fancy OS concepts are planned for IoT. Or Argo OS, supercomputing OS, for mobile phones. It is for supercomputers, Linux based, but has asynchronous and error correcxting capabilty and parallel processing for multicore processors. Thee was something called "Green processor" academic research project years ago, if I remember the name right (Green secure processor?) for low power chip. Cheap magnetic memory is needed, dramexchange.com has 4,8 dollars 128 GB project flash memory price, so 0,0375 dollars for GB and 0,01 dollar price for 300 megabytes. That cheap memory can be used in hybrid roll printing as cache memory etc. and also as regular memory. But even cheaper is magnetic tape memory for large mass memory. If regular LTO data cartridge is made as PC standard, every desktop PC has LTO tape drive, with take up tape roll inside PC because LTO is one reel format, 6 terabytes is possible to store in tape, 48 TB in future and 154 TB in Fujifilm Nanocube. If LTO tape standard is made available in every desktop PC, tape prices go to same level as old VHS videocassette prices, if manufactured millions of units (like video cassettes). For max 6 -154 terabytes of memory per cassette. Also tape memory can be improved using same hybrid memory principle as hard drives, smaller 1 terabyte amount of RAM (1 terabyte of cheapest and slowest flash RAM cost about 40 dollars) can be used with 6-154 TB tape memory. LTO Accelis two reel cassette instead of single reel can be used, but using standard normal LTO cartridge tape reel size, so LTO Accelis two reel cassette would be about 110 -115 mm X 150 mm size, about the size of old Betamax video cassette. But both LTO one and two reel version cassettes should be thinner, about 16mm, if 12,7mm is the tape width, when now LTO is 21,5mm, that s too thick cassette for home PC. One reel LTO cartridge fits inside home PC and two reel version should fit also in PC towers. Smaller two reel cassette using half of 960 meters LTO tape legth, and half of tape width from 12,7 mm to 6,35 mm, this is for small laptop and even tablet PCs. Data capacity is 1/4 of bigger cassette formats, so from 1,5 TB to 38 TB. Accelis two reel format is faster but lower data capacity than standard LTO. smaller 6,35 mm tape makes also tape heads cheaper I think. But 8mm tape can be used if 6,35 mm tape is not produced anymore, with 26% more capacity. Cassette size can be 80 - 87 mm X 107 mm, only slightly larger than C-cassette which is 64 X 101 mm. 480 metres of LTO tape fits in that casette in one reel of two reel cassette, one reel LTO cassette has 960 metres max. Cassette thickness can be 8,7 - 9 mm with 6,35mm tape, even slimmer than C-cassette that is 9,5 mm. But even slimmer version can be made for mobile phones, using previous cassette size but only 3,81 mm tape width cassette can be only 6 - 6,4 mm thick. Altough it has 15 - 20 mm more height than C-cassette it has almost same length and it is thinner. Capacity is slightly over 15 % of LTO single reel cartridge, so from 900 gigabytes to 23 terabytes. Even smaller can be 480 m tape one reel micro-LTO tape width 3,81mm and 75 X 76mm cassette size, take up reel is inside mobile phone. The narrower the tape width is more cheaper tape reading mechanisms (tape heads) can be used I think. But tape heads, electric motors etc. consume power, are more expensive than simple memory card RAM memory slot in phone or PC, so cheap phones and PCs use regular memory card to save device cost, however magnetic tape manufactured mass production like C-cassettes is cheap making with cheap hybrid memory (tape together with flash RAM) for example virtual reality possible in mobile phones using virtual glasses, 40 dollars is cheapest terabyte RAM. So LTO cassette prices can be about same price range as empty C-cassette in its heyday, if manufactured in similar scale (millions of units). And LTO now has 6 terabytes (or 1,5 TB previous generation), in future will be 48 TB and using Fujifilm Nanocube 154 TB. However cheapest phones and PCs don t use tape memory, because tape mechanism is bulky and more expensive than memory card slot. A way to make processor cheaper is computational RAM (C-RAM) used processor-in-memory (PIM) devices like Venray and Micron Automata, that C-RAM tecnology makes possible even silicon chip fast processor to be made at same price as printed PDA, but operating system and programming is diferent than regular PC. However because meory price is so low nowadys, 128 bigabytes is an awful lot of transitors for price of only 4,8 dollars. C-RAM in "dram-optimized" form, using cheap memory facturing as logic IC. Billions of dollars are spend in printed electronics research and that have large publicity. But nobody notices that is possible to make super cheap ICs like printed electronics, but much smaller than 1000 nanometer of nowadays printed electronics. However price is same. C-RAM chip at 90nm is 120 times smaller and 120 times faster than 1000nm printed electronics. 65nm C-RAM is 240 times faster and 240 times smaller. That is enormous advantage. But price is almost same as printed electronics. Why nobody notice it? So making super cheap electronics C-RAM in dram optimized form is much better than printed electronics, that gets all the publicity. Even cheaper should be mask ROM (MROM). If CPU is manufactured at mask ROM factory instead of regular CPU factory, MROM transitors are much simpler than regular CPU, and simplicity of MROM structure puts restrains to design, that must be simplified from regular CPU. But still flash RAM or mask ROM price is so much cheaper than regular CPU per transistor, and in same class to almost no cost per unit printed electronics. And no new factories and manufacturing techniques need to be invented like printed electronics, factories do already exist. Speed and size is so enermously better in C-RAM or "computational MROM". "C-MROM" is not memory chip at all, it is just CPU chip that is manufactured at mask ROM factory. C-MROM must be simple logic, no match for similar size regular CPU, but price is much cheaper, and price in same class to printed electronics. Why all publicity goes to latter when C-RAM or C-MROM offers so much more speed and shrink? At same ultra low price. In third world market is need for ultra-cheap electronics so C-RAM and C-MROM (a term I invented, because I don t know what else it should be called) is suitable for their needs. As long printed electronics does not reach similar shrink levels C-RAM and C-MROM should be preferred method for ultra-cheap electronics. Regular CPUs have "MROM units" and that like cheap flash RAM can be used with hybrid printing with printed electronics. C-RAM has been studied in processor-in-memory (PIM) and other ways, most interesting is DRAM optimized super cheap version, and C-MROM can be made also, but C-MROM is like ordinary CPU made according to MROM manufacturing principles, so simplified transitors and less layers etc, and simplified logic. If RAM price is only 0,01 dollar for 300 megabytes, that is lots of transistors for such as small price, same as printed electronics but much faster and smaller, and if they can be turned to logic (C-RAM) that would be much higher efficiency than printed electronics. Nobody seems to notice that, altough IoT and cheap electronics is what is wanted nowadays. MROM should be even cheaper, and more easily turned to logic chip (MROM memory is not turned to logic, but CPU manufactured among same cheap principles that make MROM chip). So fast and ultra-cheap electronics is available but nobody seems to be interested. Why? 1 gigabyte at 0.0375 price is lots of transistors almost at no cost, if some of those transistors can be turnet to logic, making CPU or GPU from that gigabyte. Even antique 250nm process from 20 year ago is 16 times faster and 16 times smaller than best printed electronics at 1000nm. There is huge difference between 16nm silicon manufacturing and 1000nm printed electronics, C-RAM and C-MROM can fill that gap, and price range difference also between printed and silicon electronics, but C-RAM and C-MROM can be made at same price as printed electronics, so its hugely more effective option. India is opening silicon fabs at 90 and 65nm, if chips can be ordered there at cheaper price than chinese 90 or 65 nm chips. 110nm, 130nm, 180nm etc is still much faster than printed electronics, and 350nm also. No matter if silicon chip is slow, only thing to worry is price and power consumption in third world market super cheap devices. Manufacturing license can be some sort of shareware, free license cost, etc, like Parallel Ultra Low Processor PULP, ePUMA, J-Core etc., or paid but very small price like 0,01 dollar for processor at max for super cheap chips. Software license also free, like old abondonware from 20-30 years ago, those processors have such small capacity anyway. Printed electronics is needed if ARM or x86 is made, C-RAM and C-MROM need different programming and OS so software must be written for them. License can be for software similar to hardware, very small, 1000 dollars for unrestricted amaount of manufacture, million devices with that program only has 0,001 dollar licence payment, billion devices can have million dollar payment for software usage etc. MROM research has ceased when MROM became unfashionable, but some innovations is made: "The mask ROM and method for making same" US pat 20050070060A is three diensional MROM and EEPROM (like primitive Hybrid Memory Cube?), US pat 8606193A "DRAM and MROM cells with similar structure" 1994, RAM and MROM memory made at same manufacturing process to same chip, Philips "JMROM" theoretical concept "High speed fast cell mask ROM", and CSMC ltd patents like WO2013086908A1 and Macronix patents. But because printed electronics is free of size limitations super large, even square meter class "macroprocessors" can be made. If Cell processor (Playstation) or Kalray 256-core is made using printed electronics it would be huge size. And huge slow compared to silicon version. But processor can be folded like hankerchief to about 10 X 15 cm (4 X 6 inch) package, if processor design take care of folding points so that processor folds smoothly. And printing can combine ordinary silicon RAM or ROM memory to printed logic circuits, or even optical componets like mass produced optical fibre, Nufern makes 1,8 fibre as mass production, and 1,3 micron is proposed, so 1,25 -1,8 mass produced optical fiber can boost printed electronics. Even optical computer, digital or analog, can be made using roll printing and 3D structure like Hybrid Memory Cube stacking fibres on top of each other for many layers, using polarton lasers.Also analog electronics can be roll printed, "Configurable analog chip" (J. Hasler) for example, it has low power consumption so it can be made at square meter class, and neuromorphic chips also. Also KLT transform can be used in analog form, and "analog magnetic memory" like pat US 5504699A 1996 with analog computer. Hitachi Ising machine, "The Feynman machine AI" and SSRLabs processor are other concepts. Not only CPU or GPU (or UPU Harmony, combined CPU/GPU), but also DSP, ASIC, FPGA, CGRA (configurable array), microcontroller etc. can be made with C-MROM, C-RAM and printed electronics. VLIW microcontrollers like CEVA-X and Improv Jazz seem to be effective. If Intel Quark has 0,025 watt power consumption, making 100 -200 core Quark processor with about billion transistors, it still has about 2,5 watt power requirement. Other way to make slow processor faster is to use mixed radix- residue- combinatorial, complex- or other number systems instead of straight binary, reduced instruction set residue number system, "Signal processor with reduced combinatorial complexity" etc. And using reconfigurable- or "unconventional computing" (reversible-, chaos-, and stochastic processors). Bipolar transistor / ECL, or all new transistor type designs, other than silicon semiconductor etc. However these are not suitable for legacy processors like ARM or x86. Making purely GPU -based processors (GPU almost without CPU circuits) using OS like TxLinux RTX Vxworks, PTask, GDVE, Yellow Dog Linux, Futhark programming language etc. is possible for parallel processing OS. Using memristor based tech, unikernel instead of normal OS, and super simple integer ALU that uses Trachtenberg speed system improved by V. Jadhav. Trachtenberg system is mental computing so it uses simple algorithms that make even complicated calculations simple using very simple number shifting tricks etc. Those simple algorithms can be used to make decimal ALU that is in the software if not in hardware, decimal computing fast, and computer can have instead of 1- 8 integer ALUs 64 simpler decimal Trachtenberg ALUs that are fast, but however cannot replace completely need for normal integer ALU. Simple microcontrollers like Corvus and ZPU can be made using printed electronics. Ways to improve slow ARM or x86 processors in 1 - 5 micron or larger made, is to make processor slightly inexcat, 0,25% is proposed (Rice university), GPU can be 8% error rate and signal processing elements too. Making signal processing (audio, video, computer graphics) analog instead of digital can also lead to speed improvement, and slow 1 -5 micron made FPU replaced with analog floating point unit. Also reducing cache memory to minimum make transistor count smaller but processor is after that even slower. However if printed electronics processor reach square metre size, smaller transistor count makes processor more manageable and cheaper. If digital floating point unit is used unum computing can be added to FPU. When old legacy ARM or x86 processors or old GPU or DSP designs are not used, multicore parallel processing, asynchronous, Warp processor, Simultaneus sampling data acquisition architectures 2015 etc. methods can be used with totally new CPU or DSP structures and all new operating systems. For mobile phones or tablet PCs costing about 2-8 dollars simplified assembly where no separate plastic case and PCB board is not used but SoC, touchscreen and battery and memory is all wrapped in casted plastic, phone cannot be opened and battery changed because all innards of phone are cast in plastic, cheap battery would be making hole in plastic casing, pour battery materials in and closing hole with plastic, battery is simply a hole in phone s plastic casting that is enclosed and contain battery material. So phone is large "microchip" that has touchscreen, casted in plastic case, but no PCB board is needed if all components are packed inside SiP or PoP package. Only touchscreen, memory card slot and outside contact jacks are not cast under plastic surface. However If price and performance is compared together, C-RAM and C-MROM are most effective, and in wide margin compared to printed electronics or even ordinary silicon chips. So in cases where legacy ARM or x86 processors are not needed devices for third world countries should use super cheap but still effective C-RAM and C-MROM chips. Also IoT should be interested of them, they offer super cheap computing fast and are much faster and smaller than printed electronics at about same almost no-cost price per chip (300 megabytes RAM cost 0,01 dollar at cheapest, and 300 megabytes is lot of transistors for that price). So another option instead of using printed electronics in IoT or cheap electronics for third world countries is DRAM optimized / MROM optimized (meaning manufacturing process uses mask ROM factory production, the chip itself is not memory circuit but CPU made along cheap MROM manufacturing principles) C-RAM and C-MROM circuits that are not only super cheap and at same price level to printed electronics but are also much faster and smaller, efficiency can be hundreads times better using them than printed electronics but price is about the same. Somehow nobody seems to notice that.