Work is becoming increasingly scarce because of automation, robots are doing work instead of humans and automation is increased throughout society in place of human workers. Then unemployment rises. Those who have work, work overtime and then get tired of the burden. Only solution is to dived work, but how? The french and german 6 hour models try maintain salary level of 8 hour work in 6 work day, and are expensive to state because state of France and Germany pay extra money to employer to compensate losses (dozens of billions of euros each year). But it is utopistic to demand that employer should pay 6 hours the same as 8 hours, so it is not gonna happen. What is only solution? To divide worktime. Model of 20% worktime given to other (otherwise unemployed) worker is in very limited use in Finland, and results are mixed, some voluntarely change 20% of their salary to extra free time, others not. But how about 12 hour working day? 12 hour day is same as 6 hour day but now only 6 months in a year is worktime, 6 months is leisure time. Now salary is only 75%, but instead of about 1 month leave there is 6 months free time in a year, spread perhaps one day 12 hours work, second day free, third day work, fourth day free etc. and one or two months longer leave and similarly inceased working days in working months (so two days work, one day holiday in limited time) to compensate. 25% of salary is exchanged to 6 months avarage free time and increased working day of 12 hours in avarage 6 months in a year. 12 hour working day can have two 10 minute tea breaks and one 20 minute lunch, total 12 hours 40 minutes, not 9 hours total time like 8 hour working day. Workplaces are “marked” so when for example worker is using some machine 8 hours a day for a year, if now employer uses 12 hour 6 months working time and then uses this new 6 month empty time to hire other worker to do job for those other 6 months (or days when the other workes is not working, in day in day out sheme), employer must pay overwork payment for this extra working time like the machine is used in 8 hour working day / year shift. This is because worker must get the same salary per working hour as normal 8 hour worker per workhours per year. That overtime payment is shared between those two workers working in that one machine in same year. Trade unions can however decide if they give employer opportunity to hire two workers in the place of one in 12 hour days per year work without overtime payment (each worker works 6 months). This even if employer has hired only people who are not in trade union. Final decision is so made by trade union, not employer if work terms violates 8 hour working day / year laws of worktime. Each employer are treated individually by trade union, and in limited time, and situation revaluated then again. Now when each workplace is shared between two workers, two times workers are needed than are working today. Even if employer does not hire people for extra work, employer must hire more workforce because that one worker of global 12 hour/6 month rule works 75% of normal 8 hour worker, 25% more workforce is needed. So unemployment disappears, because there is very few countries with more than 25% unemployment rate. Unemployment benefits are not needed anymore, and when people can have job anytime all those negative aspects of unemployment, like increased crime rates, drug dealers in the streets, cost of putting large amount of population to prisons etc. would disappear. When employment is 100% guaranteed continuous refusing to accept work offers can be punished under criminal law, criminals now must go to “real work”. No unemployment benefits anymore, no paid holidays either, money from them can be given to emplyers of 12 hour / 6 month shift as extra salary like french / german model does for 6 hour work, money from discontinued unemployed benefits comes from state, discontinued holiday payments money from employer, divided between two workers if two workers are in same workplace instead of one 8 hour / year worker. No maternity leave money either, if someone goes to maternity leave for 6 months or more, that is her normal holiday shift, someone else is doing work in her place, when she returns to work that someone else leaves for 6 months or more holiday. Maternity leave money is shared between workers of the firm (employer must pay maternity leave money like normal in normal maternity leave, but now this money is shared between every employer of the firm, including men), or then statistical values how much women take maternity leave in each year are used, and every employer pay according to this statistical median value maternity value wages, but money is shared between every worker of the country. No paid day care for children either, one of two parents is in home always, so no extra day care for children are needed, single persons are exception. If a couple are using work shifts that makes possible always one of them to stay at home, normal children day care benefits can be paid directly to that family, not for children day care unit. So no unemployment benefits, paid holidays, children day care costs or maternity leave payments, instead money is paid in cash to workers directly. Altough 12 hour / 6 month shift makes only 75% of wages of 8 hours / year shift, this extra money compensates losses, and now people have 6 months of leisure time in a year. Best deal of the century. This 12 hour / 6 month working time can be made to global working day law like now 8 hours are used globally. In poor countries there are less extra benefits for workers, and wages are small. But still almost 100% employment would help enormously, if looking at crime rates of south america etc. when drug dealers and criminals are away from streets (doing work). And in poor countries usually only one person in family has a job, now can two persons in family have job in some cases, altough wage is 75% of normal 8 hour / year salary. In high paid white collar jobs this divided work scheme does not bring any significant decrease of living standards. So 12 hour / 6 month model brings 25% more jobs, or perhaps even more. Other models can be used: 10 hour / 6 months when two persons share one job, employer must give 1,25 times working time if two persons are using the same workplace instead of one 8 hour / year worker. That 25% extra worktime is paid according to overtime work payment or then just ordinary payment used, so overtime when compared to 8 hour working time is not paid, but again trade union can decide which of the two options are used, even in the case that employer has not any worker that is member of trade union. When employer cannot offer 1,25 times more work compared to one 8 hour / year workplace, those two workers must take extra leave. Also now wage is only 62,5% of normal 8 hour wage, so those costs that are paid as extra to salary, like pension and sick-leave payments must be reconsidered and instead of some sick-leave or pension payments they are paid in cash directly to worker. So social security payment share of sum that employer pays for worker are less than before, worker gets money from them directly as salary. And then 12 hour day / four month year scheme. This is simplest of them all, it is simple 8 hour day split in two and then 4 hours increased to 12 hours, only 4 months work in a year, 8 months is leisure time. Because this model is derivate of 8 hour model, overtime payments etc. can be simply exactly similar as 8 hour model / year, but now worktime is not a year but only 4 months per year. Two workers in same workplace doing same work as one 8 hour / year person, now wage of those two workers is only 50% of that one 8 hour worker. In Finland extra payments of employers reach about 1,8 times of salary or even higher, in some cases even 2 or 2,2 so when employer pays to worker 9000 euros, actually worker gets 5000 euros only, 4000 euros goes to pensions, sick-leave payments, paid holidays etc. if ratio is 1,8. Some of this extra money, 4000 euros per month, can be given to worker directly as salary and less to social benefits. This compensates low salary of shared workplace. In 12 hour / 50% / four months work during year model: 1,8 (social security wage ratio) X 0,5 = 0,9. Then 0,9:0,74 = about 1,22. Now salary is 74% compared to 8 hour / year worker, and social benefit ratio per wage is 1,22 which is small but enough for pension etc. Then 63% worktime of 10 hour model X 1,8 = about 115% salary without social security benefits. With 83% salary compared to normal 8 hours worker, social security payments are 1,4 ratio (115:0,83=1,4 about). And worker still gets extra money from state compensations that come from discontinued employment benefits avarages and maternity leaves and child care etc. discontinuation compensations and more extra money from employer from discontued paid holidays. Two workers are having 5/6th of salary of one person doing normal 8 hours / year job, plus additional extra money mentioned earlier. Those models of shared work now look interesting. If employer pays those 1,25 times worktime with overtime payments in 10 hours model, so 25 % of worktime is paid with 56% overtime payment (in this case overtime payment is 56%, I just take an example), so 25% overtime becomes 40% payment (1,56 X 25 = about 40%). Finnish social benefits to wages 1,8 times model are used. 1,4 X 1,8 =2,52. Divided in two = 1,26. If 92% wage of normal 8 hour worker is used, wage to social benefit ratio is almost 1,37 (1,26:0,92= 1,37). Two workers share one job. It is also possible even 12 hour / three month a year model, now three worker shares one 8 hour / year workplace and gets 37,5% of salary of normal 8 hour / year worker, 1,8 times that is 63% (social benefit payments from employer), when combined worktime is 112,5% if 12,5% is overtime paid salary is 72%. If only 3% goes to social benefits such as sick-leave or other, no pensions because there is no money to pay for them), that is about 4-5% of salary to social benefit ratio if about 70% or 65% is wage compared to 8 hour worker instead of regular 80% or 1,8 wage / social benefit extra ratio in Finland (about 73:70= 1,04 and 68:65= 1,05). So worker gets only 70% or 65% of salary compared to 8 hour worker, but worktime is only 3 month / year, 12 hour / day, and if worker wants pension he must himself donate from his small salary to his personal pension fund. But leisure time is more than enough and worker gets compensation money from state and employer according to aforementioned things. And now one workplace can be shared between three workers instead of one. White collar jobs and other high paid jobs can be divided between three workers, they have such high salary that this 70 or 65% rate without any significant social benefits does not affect their lifestyle. 100% is ordinary 8 hour year model. Also “overtime” (overtime work) here means overtime always compared to 8 hours / year model. Working hours are counted in yearly basis, not by day, so 12 hour / day is possible workers to do if they have for example deal that three workers share the same vacancy, but they work only three months each during year. This is 37,5% salary model, if ratio of salary (1) + social benefits (pensions + sick-leave payments etc.) is 1,8 like in finland, employer must pay 1,8 times salary to worker which worker gets 1 (100%) and other 80% (1,8 ratio) goes to extra benefits (pension, social security payments etc.). When only about 5% goes to them, even one job shared with three workers is able to reach about 70% salary for each of them three (70% of 8 hour / year model salary for one worker only). But overtime work is ALWAYS meaning overtime according to 8 hours / year level, altough worktime is shared everything must be compared to normal 8 hour model, and paid to worker according to workhours per year of 8 hours model. Workhours are counted yearly basis and compared to normal 8 hours five days a week model. 12 hour 6 months (actually in 8 hour model one month is holiday in a year, so actual worktime must be 12 hours / less than 6 months work / five days a week avarage) makes 75% of yearly salary of normal 8 hour model. But if 1,8 is ratio of wage / pension and social benefits, now 1,8 X 0,75 = 1,35 wage level. If worker gets 92% of normal 8 hour salary level, he gets 1,47 wage / social benefit ratio (1,35: 0,92), that is enough. Restrictions of sick-leave payments must be made, and if worker gets so sick he cannot work and must take pension, that money is now limited. But pensions are in normal level. Also wage is better to split through year, so holidays are paid, altough I peviously proposed that no paid holidays. When wage is spread through year taxation is lower. So wage level is 11/12th of normal 8 hour work spread evenly through year, every month worker gets paid, working hours are only 75% of normal 8 hour yearly work. That 12 hour / about 6 month month model can be made to global standard. Employers are forced to hire 25% more workforce globally. In poor countries both wage and social benefits are small, but overcoming unemployment is better (crimes, street gangs, drug traffic by enemployed people) altough now already small salary per worker is even smaller (about 25% smaller). Also employer must always pay for overtime work according to overtime work law if working hours are more in yearly basis than normal 8 hour / year model, so that people in poor countries are properly paid. 10 hour model is 62,5% worktime compared to 8 hour year, two people in one job, worktime 125% compared to 8 hours model, employer pays 25% overtime wage, overtime wage ratio 1,56, so 25 X 1,56= 40%, 1,4 X 1,8 (social benefit wage ratio), end result = 2,52 . Diveded by two workers= 1,26. If wage is 92% of 8 hour model, 1,26 : 0,92 = 1,37 wage to social benefit ratio in use, enough, so 11/12th salary for two workers instead of one worker. Even without overtime payment for 25% “overtime” but normal wage for this 25% overtime work compared to 8 hour model, and 83% salary level compared to 8 hour model, it is still about 1,4 times wage / benefits. So two workers get both 11/12th or 5/6th of wage of one worker (normal 8 hour year worker) in same job, and almost same social benefit level, this is the “magic model”. If employer has no work to offer 25% “overtime” and workers must stay to 100% workhours level or same as one worker of 8 hours, and those two workers must take extra leave instead of work this conceptual 25% “overwork” time, this is not magic model anymore but bad model for those two workers. Other and simple model is 12 hours / about 4 months, worktime 50% of 8 hour model in yearly basis, 1,8 X 0,5 = 0,9, if salary is 74% social benefits are 1,22 level, enough but perhaps small (0,9 : 0,74 = 1,22). Pension / wage level is about 1,16 to 1,22 or 1,25 in Finland so pensions are still almost normal level, if salary for two persons each is 74% of one person in the same vacancy doing 8 hours / year. Accoding to work available workers can shift between 10 hour/ 6 month “magic model” and 12 hour / 4 month model through year, when overtime work is not available they have to do 12 hour but only 50% avarage workhours in year model in some months, if employer gets large order of some product two workers shift to 10 hour 62,5% workhours a year with “overtime” work (compared to normal one worker 8 hour workhours per year model in one job, so 8 hour / year worker does 100% workhours, this is the base and those other two workhour levels, 50% and 62,5% are compared to this, two workers in one job so 100% and 125% workhours). Overtime is here always meaning overtime compared to normal 8 hour / year yearly avarage workhours, and if normal 8 hour model workhours per year level is surpassed, employer pays overtime work payment whatever shared work model is in use (but perhaps trade unions can give permission to firm which is in bad shape to use 10 hour model 25% “overtime” with normal salary without extra overtime payments, in limited time when firm recovers). Main point is that everyone can make their own shared work models, only calculator and basic information of wages and social benefits (pensions etc.) / wage level is needed. If someone is a mathematician he can make optimized shared work / wokhours / year models. But everyone everywhere can make these shared work models, in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Poland, Russia etc. Everyone everywhere, is anybody reading this? If my writing was messy you can figure out your own models of shared work, one model where work shared by 0,25 level (Worker does only 75% workhours of normal 8 hour year model, my 12 hour / 6 month model, actually 12 hours / less than 6 month work because one month holiday in 8 hour model must be counted), then other model where one work shared by two persons, and then one work shared even between three persons. What are the results? If worktime of these models get more workhours per year than 8 hour / year workhours workers should be paid for this yearly workhours “overtime” using standard overwork law (with some exceptions I wrote before). In Finland overwork is about 50% extra wage, I use 56%, and sunday work 100% extra wage. If work is done in sundays this 100% extra rule is in shared models also. 10 hour / 62,5% model has same system 12 hour / 75%, workdays are just shorter. 12 hour / 50% model has only about 4 months worktime during year (if five day working week statistical avarage is used in calculations), so even more spare time. Those 75%, 62,5% and 50% are workhours per year compared to normal 8 hours / year 100% model. It should be noted in 10 hour / 62,5% model that combined worktime of two workers is 125% compared to one 8 hour/ year worker, so those two workers must be paid for their “overwork”, that percentage which goes over 50%, so 62,5% model has 12,5% section that is paid 56% higher wage (ratio 1,56) which is overwork payment rate about in Finland. Trade unions can offer some firm possibility that this “overwork” is paid according to normal wage, not extra 56%, if firm is in bad shape. In high GDP countries like Sweden, Switzerland, Ireland, Norway etc. Finland has not so high GDP when counting GDP (PPP). How about dividing one job between three workers? It can be done in Finland also, altough Finland has less GDP than aforementioned, almost every job in Finland can be divided between three workers if pension/social benefit ratio is 1,8 to wages, every 100% that worker earns other 80% goes to social security payments, and so employer must pay 180% for worker and worker gets only about half of that money, other goes to pension, sick-leave funds, paid holidays etc. Mathematician can calculate different shared work models where overtime work (of workhours compared to normal 8 hours / year), social benefit payment rate, and workhours of shared work together taken concern and then building different optimal “magical models” of highly optimized shared worktime can be done. For different countries, and two or three persons for one job models, and global 12 hour / about 6 month model where 75% of worktime is instead normal 8 hour model. What is cost to employer for using these shared work models? The cost is NOTHING. Employer pays exactly same as one person doing the same job. In 62,5%/10 hours model 25% overwork time is counted, but cost is same as one person doing 25% overtime. And trade unions can grant permission for employer to use normal wage for this overwork time so actually employer sometimes pay LESS wage than using normal one person / 8 hour worker through year. What are the cost to pension payments if shared work is used? The cost is almost NOTHING. In Finland pensions are about 16% - 22% per wage so 1,16 -1,22 ratio. Those shared models where two people share same job reach same levels or are even about 1,4 rate, so no difficulties. When two person share same job their wage is smaller and this pension rate adapts to that. Some slight downward correction must be made, but government of Finland has stated that pensions are too high in Finland and must be downgraded in the future, so if work is shared this slight correction can be done in shared work pension models. Even three person can have same job. Trying to improve three worker model: 12 hours three months avarage worktime is 37,5 compared to 8 hour model. If slightly upwards 38,5% worktime 3X that is 115,5%. 16% overwork time wirh 1,56 times extra payment is 25%. Now 125% payment X 1,8 social security benefits is 2,25. 0,75 or 75% for one of three workers. 75% : 68,5% = 1,1 about. About 70% wage for each of three workers with only 1,1 pension / social security ratio. It is not much pension but about 60% pension if about 9% from wage goes to pension not 16%, one percent goes to other social security. However in Finland some professions have between 1,8 -2,0 social security payment ratio and some even 2,2 and even 2,25 is mentioned. 2,2 X 1,25 is 2,75, shared between three is 0,92, then 0,92 : 0,79 is 1,17 ratio about. So wage is about 80% with 1,17 social security ratio. 2 X 1,25 is 2,5. Divided in three is 0,84. 0,84 : 0,71 = 1,185 social security ratio. 0,71 or 71% is 5/7th of wage of normal 100% / 8 hour worker, and social security level is best of those three workers in one job models. So one job can be divided between three workers and still have some pension and social security. Even more is possible if same 25% “overwork” that is in use in 10 hour model is used. 25% X 1,56 = 1,4 about. 1,4 X 1,8 = 2,52. This is the same model as 0,84 : 0,71 or 71% wage and 1,18 -1,19 social security level. 2 X 1,4 = 2,8. Shared in three 0,94, then 0,94 : 0,8 = 1,18. So 80% wage 1,18 social security ratio. 2,2 X 1,4 = 3,08. shared in three 1,03, then 1,03 : 0,87 = 1,18 -1,19 social security level, now wage is 87% or 7/8th of normal 100% 8 hour one worker in job level, about 1,19 social security ratio, but now there is three workers in one job and each of those three earn 7/8th of one worker that works 8 hours a year. NO EXTRA COST TO EMPLOYER, payments from employer to worker(s) for this job is exactly the same as one person doing he same workhours, altough there are now three workers doing the same workhours as one person in 8 hour / year work would do and these three workers share this one man s job (8 hour day / year). Have anybody ever counted how much unemployment cost to society in crimes, alcoholism and sickness etc.? In my personal observation unemployed people are source of almost all misbehaviour. There is also huge welfare system with unemployment benefits etc., designed to help unemployed. All this can be discontinued when 100% employment rate is achieved, and this saved money given to people who share their job as compensation, low wage jobs are targeted to main benefiaciry of this compensation system, high paid shared jobs less or not all compensation by state. If person does not accept job after several job offers, his housing benefits are stopped if he has any, and if this person still refuses to go work he can be send to jail. Refusing to accept job can be made a crime. Because there are plenty of jobs available anytime, jobs that only are waiting to be shared. Universities everywhere in the world and higher education institutions can now triple their student amount, because every highly paid expert job is shared by three workers. Tragedy of western world is that we have highly efficient educating system for expert jobs, universities etc., but only limited amount of jobs for these experts. So highly trained experts from unversities go straight to unemployment line everywhere. But now every white collar job can be shared with three workers. Number of “better people” in the society triples suddenly. Low wage jobs can be done by foreigners from poor countries, where extreme poverty is affecting 766 million people, living with 1,25 -1,9 dollar a day, and some of them ultra poverty, 0,59 - 0,55 dollar per day. Now jobs are available in westen countries. Local inhabitants in western countries can go to better high paid jobs which are shared like every job in western world in the future. However not everyone is forced to take job in shared work society, women who live in registered relationship or live in someone else s apartment, or are married, or are supported by their parents, or are wealthy (fortune by heritage etc.) and who have no profession or job are free of that “forced labour” rule that everyone must have job. However this privilegy is only for women, not for men, every adult men must have work if they are not disabled. If they are disabled all health related benefits are so small in shared work society (because there is no much money left for sickness social security benefits, that money is dispersed through every salary) that nobody wants to be put into disbaled person category, because they receive little if any financial support from society. Every men must have job because of crime rates in south america and USA. If there is oppurtunity that men could avoid work, criminals would use it. Of course criminals under this forced labour rule would all become “businessmen”. But they must register their firms, so their “business” can be observed and regulated that way. Not only white collar work, also blue collar work has many high paid expert jobs, because blue collar workers work in their hands even without much education, not even high education is needed to high paid shared work for people. That extreme situation where 2,25 ratio is wage / social security was a blue collar work, construction worker specialist or something like that who had 8000 euro salary but employer must pay 18 000 euros for his job because of extra benefits, so employer pays him 18 000 euros per month but worker receives only 8000 euros of it. Those jobs can easily shared between three workers when that ratio is radically moved towards more salary and less social security benefits and extra bonuses like paid holidays etc. So even blue collar work can offer oppurtunity to social rise and prestige to masses if those works are shared. Perhaps the driving force behind crime in western world is the lack of social prestige, not so mch poverty. People see that they have no oppurtunity for social rise and become criminals to get respect, if social rise is offered to them in the form of respected professions open to all, they might choose that profession instead of criminal life to get social prestige. So shared work would help to lessen crime rates radically. Basically there would be no working class anymore, everyone becomes bourgois in respected white or blue collar work, everyone becomes “better people” and traditional working class disappears. In the case of three people sharing one work in 12 hour working day only 3 months in a year is work (avarage working days per year) and 9 months is leisure time. So every person lives in holiday from cradle to grave and does work only in 1/4th of working time of his/her life, if work is shared between three people. This would be real worker s paradise and almost utopia on earth, the same utopia that Marx and every utopist have ever dreamed. And high prestige and respected jobs are open to enyone, both white collar and also blue collar jobs. But who do the jobs that nobobody wants to do? Foreign immigrants collected from poorest countries of the world, who would otherwise live in extreme poverty. So working class still exists, but that working class is foreign immigrants. How much foreign immigrants are needed if almost any job in the society is shared between three people, and some low wage jobs between two people? A lot. European union can collect 1000 million new people to do new jobs, population increases from 500 to 1500 million. USA can increase from 340 million (329 million + 11 million illegal immigrants) to 1000 million people of which 660 million new people, Canada future population 115 million, Japan 400 million, South Korea 150 million, Australia 75 million. These new inhabitants are people who otherwise live in extreme poverty in third world. If in some country exteme poverty is over 50% of population only 50% is the maximum of any country s population ferried overseas. How to build infrastructure for all those immigrants? Answer is simple, it is not needed. They can build their shaky huts in forests and wastelands, they can live in empty industrial halls, or even in sport arenas, only stay out when there are sport events and come back again. For them to have decent housing can be long term project that lasts up to 50 years, modern consruction technoloy can build cheap blockhouses cheaply and fast. Population growth can be blocked using simply thing: if new immigrants have more than two children that family is deported back to where they come. This even if this family has gained citizenship of some western nation. Simple. If some immigrant woman gives birth of three children, this woman and his children, and his husband or partner if he has one, are deported. So there is no poverty in the world anymore and also population growth problem of the world is solved in the extreme poverty areas, where population growth must be regulated most. So two problems solved in one solution, and that new population also solves workforce problem of western world where almost every job is shared between three people, so three problems solved in same time. Marx in his wildest dreams never dreamed this kind of workers paradise where only 1/4 worktime (days) in five day working week in year (three months) is enough to decent and good living. End result is that western world will be “americanised”, every large western city is surrounded by large ring of favelas or shanty towns occupied by immigrants, like in south america. But people of those favelas have much higher paid jobs than in their home countries, and live in western welfare, altough their housing and infrastructure is much less than people living in cities proper. And western world is americanised also that way that there is not much money left for public health care anymore, if every work is divided between three people and some kind of pension remains, health insurance is first to go. So this paradise-like society comes with a catch: sick people must be left for their own, because there is no money anymore for sick-leave, and if he becomes so sick he cannot work and needs pension due to sickness, that pension is no more. All kinds of public health care faces great problems because money is short to support them. So if unemployed people are now outcasts of society then in that future worker s paradise sick people are outcasts. But that is reality in USA already now and has been always. So western world will be “americanised” that way also. In USA if shared work becomes reality, even private health insurances almost disappear, because money from them is needed in shared salary between workers when workhours in shared work are much less than one person doing 8 hours / year. Middle class workers would not have private health insurances anymore, that money is given away in salary. Only rich millionaires have then salary high enough to buy private health insurance. So about 95% or more of USA population drop to situation where they have not health insurance of any kind. But that is the price of shared work workers paradise in the USA. Other western world with comprehensive public health care, some form of public health care remains, but if person becomes sick he must himself pay much higher portion of his medical treatment than nowadays, and such things like sick-leave payments are in the past.