Now biofuels are used, like biodiesel and biogasoline. Also jet petrol can be made using biofuel. Earlier “biofuel” was woodgas generator (world war 2). However their development did not end after WW2. Example is “A wood-gas stove for developing countries” 1996 by Reed and Larson (“Wood-gas turbo stove”). Those use biomass with high efficiency for cooking unlike ordinary wood stove. Another example is Gasek woodgas generator. It can use almost any kind of biomass, including household food waste, with high efficiency. Gasek offers biomass / woodgas generators as replacement of large industrial diesel generators and oil burning systems. However old idea of car engine using woodgas can be build using Gasek generator. So instead of first carrying household food waste and other household biomass to biowaste bin, then that is carried to factory that turns biowaste to biofuel etc., than that is carried back to consumer who uses this fuel in his car, household biomass waste can be just poured to car Gasek fuel tank, car uses Gasek process and turns that biowaste to energy. That Gasek generator in car is much simpler than modern biofuel to gasoline / diesel fuel process that needs collecting biowaste and eucalyptys trees etc. biomass around the world and then large industrial complex that turns biomass / biowaste to fuel and then sell this biofuel to consumers. Gasek generator does need dry biomass like WW2 woodgas generators, biomass can be used right away without drying (actually Gasek uses quick drying that needs very little time compared to ordinary drying methods) and almost any kind of biomass can be burned in Gasek generator. Also home electric generator using Gasek process can be made. Another advantage is that user must pay when using biofuel in his car or in his house (for warming), but household biowaste is free. So money savings can be huge compared to gasoline or biofuel in a car or house warming. Woodgas or biomass generators can replace ordinary diesel generator fuel systems and even fuel in car / lorry. Generator must be assembled to car / lorry like old WW2 woodgas generators. But those modern types are much more modern than WW2 woodgas generators. During WW2 in Finland was woodgas generator type that had additional compressor that used about 10 hp of engine power to turbocharge woodgas so that in certain rpm ratios engine horsepower was even more than using gasoline. Also during WW2 in Finland all cars used alcohol mixture during cold winter months. This kind of ethylene alcohol / methanol / gasoline mixture during wintertime in gasoline engines can be used in modern times also during wintertime, when weather becomes warmer ordinary gasoline or biofuel is used. Ethylene alcohol when used in gasoline engines easily worns out engine in hot climate, but in cold weather not? In Finland wood spirit (alcohol) mixture was used during winter in engines, but modern engines can perhaps use alcohol with methanol or with gasoline or all three together, in winter times. Or no gasoline / biogasoline is needed in wintertime, only alcohol mixture. Altough name woodgas generator is used in modern biomass generators also, those can use almost any kind of biomass, not just wood, so word woodgas generator is not actually suitable for those modern biomass burner generators that use biomass with high efficiency, like Gasek or CCM-Power Oy generators, altough woodgas generators for replacing oil burning industrial systems is offered mostly. If diesel generators and car engines use biomass gas generators, that would simplife enormously fuel logistics, nowdays fuel is made in big industrial complexes and transported around the world, and that is costly, if it is normal gasoline or biofuel. But biofuel generator can use local biowaste, with no cost. Local biowaste (like household waste) is just thrown into generator tank and then turned into energy. Also recyclable plastic like plastic bags can be burned in Gasek generator. Woodgas / biomass burning process is also very enviromental friendly, burning process does not create any enviromental waste at all, so it is entirely clean energy. Also if wood is used any kind of wood biomass can be used, roots, leaves and brushwood. So biomass burning generator would be perfect solution to the world, it simplifies fuel transport / logistics enormously and fuel manufacturing (fuel does not need to be manufactured any more, biowaste is just poured to fuel tank). And produces zero waste. Somehow modern “woodgas generators” (actually biomass burning generators) have received little attention, altough all kinds of enviromental friendly energy methods are studied and promoted. There is electric car racing series Formula E, and electric motorcycle racing series MotoE. Those are for promoting electric vehicles and their development. Why can t be woodgas generator racing series also? Formula One car can be converted to use woodgas generator, car becomes heavier but modern woodgas generators can offer almost same horsepower than gasoline, altough fuel is now wood biomass / charcoal (or other biomass). NASCAR, Le Mans 24 hour race etc. can use woodgas generator racing cars. Usually racing cars use experimental technologies that are then adopted in normal cars, so car racing boosts car technology and innovation. If racing cars would use woodgas / biomass generators at least in some racing series, car-woodgas generators would develop quickly to very effective and low weight. Vegetable oil waste from example from making french fries etc. can perhaps be used in biomass burning generator in cars. Such waste vegetable oils are used in making biofuels like biogasoline / petrol / biodiesel. But if energy rich biomass waste like vegetable oils can be burned immediately in biomass generator costly process of turning biomass to biofuel type (biogasoline / biodiesel) that engines can use can be avoided. In racing cars biomass generator using waste vegetable oil directly (burning it) can for example be used in Formula One - type car. Woodgas generator does not make any pollution emission, so racing would be then enviromental friendly. So instead of enormous chemical industry that is making fossil fuels and biofuels, and transports them around globe, both making fuel in refineries and then transporting that to consumers around globe is costly. Making biofuel is costly also, it requires refineries also. If biomass waste is burned immediately in biomass / woodgas generator, near consumer, in his house or in his car, logistics of fuel economy can be simplified enormously. And waste is free, but if consumer uses fossil fuels or biofuels, he must pay for it. So biomass burning generator uses cost free energy, it costs nothing if user is burning his own household biowaste. Woodgas is also enviromental friendly, it produces no wasteful pollutions.
I found Keelynet netpages and from there Keelynet july 2010 page. It has some things like “Brother Industries vibration charged battery”, “Ceramic s BlueGen” gas oven, “nPower PEG” electric generator, “Michael Grätzler solar cell” etc. and other ecology things.
Also electric cars are nowdays trend, but why they must be cars? More like light electric bicycle (“quadracycle”) would suit better for electric personnel transport. Three or four wheel electric bicycles that carry two, three or four persons. They can have some sort of cover for weather protection like cars, but otherwise they are like light bicycles. If they cannot ride in car road for safety reasons, they can ride in bicycle lanes. Lightweight electric bicycle type vehicles with three or four wheels. Why people must use car that is heavy, ton or more, for transportation? Why not use very lightweight vehicles instead? Why electric cars must imitate gasoline cars? Electric quadracycle is so much cheaper than car also. And carries people from one place to another like car does. Moped cars and motorcycles are allowed to use car roads, altough their safety protection is not like car, why cannot electric quadracycle use public roads like cars? How safety of electric quadracycle is different from motorcycle? However motorbike can ride in car road, electric quadracycle is not allowed? Light vehicle using batteries etc. is much more economical and cheaper (cheaper to buy and cheaper to use) than car that weights over ton even without load. Why it is illegal to use very ceap and effective travelling method that is not polluting enviroment? When every other way to make cars and transportation greener is studied and promoted. Lightweight electric vehicles are cheap to build and use, not like some Tesla that costs enormously and weights ton. Lightweight electric vehicles would be perfect solution for ecology, fuel use / pollution etc. problems would be no more. However they are illegal to drive in roads where they belong. However polluting motorcycles are allowed to use roads altough they have even less safety. There is no logic in this. Lightweight vehicles could be build from wood, plastic composites or metal. And structurally like bicycle / quadracycle or dune buggy. European quadracycle classes have 450 kg maximum weight without load limit, it is like another midget car / micro car vehicle class. Right quadracycle would be 45 kg minimum weight without load vehicle class, it would be like pedal quadricycle but with electric power. This lightweight vehicle would have permission to use same roads like regular cars. In AutoSpeed (com) netpage is “Building an ultra light-weight car”, similar is suitable. Or building lightweight replicas of Morris Mini, Porsche or Ferrari or other car classics that look outward as cars but inside they are just electric bicycles with four wheels. “Zingerchair” is another type of vehicle, motorised wheelchair but not for handicapped but normal transport, it is like electric bicycle but four wheels and chair. Various versions of three to four wheel electric vehicles that are much lighter than normal electric cars can be build. Those can carry from one to four persons. These are more like electric bicycles than cars. Their price would also be cheaper than cars, close to electric bicycle.
Electric scooter weights 10 - 15 kg. Electric bicycle weights about 20 kg, slightly over or under. However when electric vehicles get three or four wheels their weight escalates to well over 100 kg. Why? If two electric scooters are connected with two steel bars, then square plate is put to this two - scooters connected, result is light four wheel vehicle that weights about 30 kg. It is like 30 kg weighting electric “mini car”. Or two electric bicycles connected similar way. It can now carry two persons or more and has four wheels. If electric vehicles must be heavy because they have heavy batteries, but what about when batteries can be changed? So batteries should be not so heavy if they can be changed at every gas station etc. or battery changing station. It is possible that electric vehicle owner when he/she buys vehicle does not buy batteries. Batteries are owned by organisation which has battery changing stations in gas stations etc. Every time battery is going empty it can be changed to another that is full of electric charge. So batteries in vehicles can be then lighter and electric vehicles also much lighter. Three wheel and four wheel “electric cars” can then weight just about 45 kg empty, or even 20 - 30 kg like two electric scooters connected. So hundreds of kg weighting vehicles are not needed. Because those light vehicles are electric bicycle based, their price would be very low, operating costs minimal, and they would be handier vehicles in city traffic than cars or nowdays electric cars. Even without battery changing organisation those lightweight tricycles and quadracycles would be more economical ways to travel in city traffic than heavy cars or heavy electric cars. Batteries altough not owned by vehicle owner can also be charged at vehicle owner s home and in other places. Or owner owns batteries also. Why there is not ultra-light electric vehicle class that is as road legal just as gasoline cars. Safety like car is not possible in lightweight vehicles but few safety measures can be in lightweight vehicles like in dune buggies. Those electric vehicles would be much cheaper than cars or nowdays electric cars, much cheaper to operate, and much handier in city traffic. Light weight is the key to super cheap vehicle. Making two wheel electric bicycle to four wheel super cheap electric “cyclecar” is easy. Cyclecars existed in 100 years ago, why cannot (electric) cyclecars exist today? And other kind of super cheap electric tricycles etc. vehicles that can carry 1 - 4 persons cheaply from one place to another. And are like electric bicycles with three or four wheels, so very lightweight. Or electric scooters with four wheels, not just two, and electric scooter can now carry 2 - 4 persons.
Regenerative brakes can be used like is used in electric cars and in some electric bicycles. Braking energy is turned to electric power when electric motor is used as generator. Also lightweight steering can be used: AutoSpeed com 2009: “It s not in the textbooks…” and suspension can be rubber, not metal springs, AutoSpeed 2011: “A seminal paper published in 1956”. AutoSpeed 2009: “Are deformations bad?” about flexible chassis.
Continuously variable transmission (CVT) can have several benefits to vehicles. Some versions of CVT can make electric motors smaller and lighter because of CVT torque properties. CVT transmissions can be used in bicycles, motorcycles and cars. Not only making electric car motors smaller, CVT can be used to make electric motorcycle motors smaller, and making ordinary gasoline car motors smaller, car can use motorcycle engine that has low torque but high amount of horsepower. Motorcycle engines are also smaller, lighter and cheaper than usual car engines. Motorcycle boxer engine can fit under car floor, and motorcycle 2 cylinder V engine is so compact that it makes car engine compartment small, in for example rear engined car. In India or China ultra cheap gasoline car that uses cheap motorcycle engine can be build, true “cyclecar” but CVT transmission had torque advantages so car has driving characteristics of almost normal car altough engine has smaller torque than normal car engine. Small 2 cylinder engine of Tata Nano can be in bigger car with CVT. Tata Nano was not success, but electric car like Tata Nano would be success in India because Indian government offers 1,38 lakh money (about 2000 dollars in 2019?) to those who buy electric car. So if electric car costs 2000 dollars it is basically free, because government pays it.
In China and in India motorcycles are bought every year huge numbers, in India 18 million per year. So if electric vehicles are gonna make any great impact in third world, development of cheap electric motorcycles should be highest priority, cheap electric motorcycles that have same price and properties than gasoline motorbikes. Only then can electric vehicles have great success in third world. Cars, even cheap cars like Tata Nano are too expensive for them but cheap motorcycles have great success in third world. So cheap electric motorcycles, mass produced in millions of units should have success too. But bias to electric cars (in the west) has somewhat hampered electric vehicle production, and (cheap) electric motorbikes have remained out of limelight so far.
Regenerative brakes can be used in electric motorcycles like it is used in electric cars and bicycles. When bike is using brakes it generates electricity. Regenerative brakes and CVT transmission that offers high torque for small electric motor. Battery swapping stations in third world where e-motorbike batteries can be swapped and loaded is perhaps needed, and electric cars can swap their batteries also. Usual gas stations can offer electric battery swapping and loading (charging) services, so no new infrastructure is needed in third world or anywhere.
Also rotary engines that have low torque can be used with CVT transmission which increases torque properties. And free piston engines that use hydraulics can be used with hydraulic CVT transmission. That kind of engine / transmission is compact and small unit. In post in RH forums: “Forgotten innovations of gasoline engines” is more about rotary engines and free piston engines, and in “Using water as fuel” post also about different engine types.