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Forgotten innovations of gasoline engines

There are many fuel-efficient gasoline engine projects that never left prototype stage, altough they improve power to weight ratio, have minimal fuel consumption etc. Examples are “free piston engines” like Sampower engine (Matti Sampo), RandCam engines like Reg Tech model, or “Camless engines with compression release braking” (Cosma, Usko) patent, swedish Kesol engine (Karl-Erik Lindblad, and Kesol motor perhaps(?) went into some sort of production in Sweden in the 1970s / 1980s. It is propably the one in this list that actually had manufactured in some numbers, wankel motor is another that had some production too), Quasiturbine, Aumet Z-engine, Saab Variable Compression (SVC) or other Saab innovation like that, engine that was so fuel efficient and have such a minimal fuel consumption that according to rumour General Motors hide it away because oil companies feared that this super fuel efficient motor would affect their oil trade business if suddenly cars would consume less fuel. Also turbochargers like Comprex or “pressure wave supercharger”, now called Hyprex and suitable for petroleum cars not only for diesel engines. Also Toroidion 1 megawatt electric car, Toroidion promises 35 000 euro price tag electric car to go into production using Toroidion concept if someone would invest 300 million euro to Toroidion. The founder of Toroidion previously worket at Jaguar and Zagato as designer. Text about the engines: “Cardan gear mechanism versus slider-crank mechanism in pumps and engines” (Karhula 2008). Kesol engine had some interest, Volvo etc. during 1970s and 1980s, and Sampower free piston engine that used hydraulic fluid as power transmisson, eliminating power transmisson axels in the car and using hydraulic fluid tubes instead and hydraulic pump in every wheel, making car lighter and simpler. Last prototypes of Sampower engine were made in the early 2000s and they were succesfull in every way, but like other motor concepts in this list nobody was interested using it and Sampower engine was forgotten, no matter how revolutionary and efficient it was. Toyota has made FPEG free piston engine that uses electricity, not hydraulics, as power transmission, and german “DLR free piston linear generator” uses same principle. Patents of Kesol and Sampower engine have expired long time ago, and also working prototypes of both engines were made already in the 1970 s / 1980s. Since 2010 has been INGOCAR hydraulic car in development, using free piston engine as hydraulic pump and using braking energy also and storing energy into “accumulator” that uses hydraulic power instead of electricity. Also ship engine innovations like Eniram fuel saving system, or WETech Solutions axle generator. Also Fibrocom manufactured plastic cargo containers using plastic fibre instead of metal had weight savings, but that firm went bankcrupt and is now owned by Kome OY, and is not making plastic transport containers anymore. Nowadays there are enermous range of new engine innovations, and new motor concepts seem to be invented every day, but those are in paper design stage only, or perhaps testbench first prototype stage. Old designs such as Kesol or Sampower had 20 years of development, testing and optimisation and fine-tuning, and were ready of mass production that did not occur. Only other types of motors with similar 20 years development and testing history are Duke Engines, and RandCam motor, and perhaps russian rotary engine, but very little information about it is available. But Sampower, Kesol and perhaps “Camless engines with compression release braking” (Cosma & Usko patent) have slipped into public domain so no licensing is needed. However modern motor concepts are (either in theoretical stage or prototype testbench form): The Doyle Rotary Engine, Gerhard Schwitz 5-stroke, Pivotal engine, Achates Power engine, Namikoshi 4-in-1 engine, Michigan university Wave Disk Generator, Circom circular rotary turbine, Liquid Piston X2 engine, Scuderi split-cycle, The Whipper engine (Roy Pfeiffer), PAUT motor, Revolver cam / Dynacam engine, Axial rotary engine, Libralato engine, Axial vector engine, Kugelmotor Huttlin, “new revolutionary rotary engine - one moving part”, Separated rotary engine, Ilmor 5-stroke, Pendulum combustion engine, Vane rotary (scissors action), PIAROS, REDMAX, Rotary spark ignited IC engine, Pinnacle engines, TCEngine,, gyroscopic inertia pulse motor generator, CHB-Evo, Hale rotary engine, “Totally concentric rotary engine”, Tropei toroidal opposed piston engine, SNREE CHIDOT, Sveta Jaghatspanian rotary engine, “Toroidal non-reciporating IC”, “Torotrakis full- toroidal variator”, Melvin ZZevolultion ZZ02, RPE S2 (Minh Nguyen), Wolfhart engine, DMM Demora motor, Carlos Barerba gear turbine, IDR Technology engine, RBR radial birotary piston, Hybrid piston/rotary engine, Mikonsky rotary, circular piston engine, Hypocycloidal engine, Saunders rotary valve engine, Circular engine (Giles Medlicott), Hyper4 engine, Ricsoel engine/generator, Rotary screw engine, Kopelpot Superflex, Birotor engine, Pick rotary engine, MYT engine (Raphael Mordago) , Balance rotary engine V engine (David Haley), Shangshqun engines, Martel deck engine, Farrington engine, Fuhandaigou engine, Wobbler engine, ReveTec, “Opposed piston engine with one crank”, PaTOP (Daniel Nenciu) PatATI (Randy Tetzloff), Linear motion unite (Heiko Beilfuss), Francis Daimler Tabag engine, B4 engine (Pankej Rajput), Legacy engine (Power Source Technologies), “The micro-free piston swing engine”, Manson engine,, Thaien-motor, NRG Dynamix, Robinson engine, The DOT, MAHLE engine. But is any of them ready for production or even tested that they work I don t know. There are also transmission innovations like D-Drive variable geared transmission, and Fisher Yoke-Arm. Only wankel and stirling engines had some production, Kesol motor almost went into production, others are prototypes. In Wikepedia pages “Pistonless rotary engine” and “Swing-piston engine” has other designs that almost reached production stage but never were, already in many years ago. After wankel engine reached production in 1957 several competetive and better designs were made, but series production of them never begin, at least in significant scale. “Opposed piston engine” has been manufactured over 100 years, and in series production, but that is more conventional, like boxer motor inverted. Only russian rotary engines has been manufactured (?) or not from 1960s up to this day.

In order to make small electric cars cheap and possible some new legal category between cycles, motorcycles, and cars should be made. Cheapest are “four wheel electric bicycles” like Sifonco Corporation, Pacific Cycles, and Windcheetah trike “The Van”. But legislation may prevent their full use on public roads because they are not crash tested to standard. Those four wheeled vehicles would be super cheap if mass produced in China etc. However bicycles and motorcycles does not need to be crash tested like cars. If those super simple “electric cars” would be classified as cycles, not cars, altough they can have powerful electric motor and battery, “dune buggy” like, cheaper personal transport than passenger cars and without emissions would be possible (four or five person bike-like electric cars build cheaply almost using standard bike making technology). Cars like Elio Motors or Lit Motors are registered as motorcycles, and similar would be possible for electric cars. And transport does not need to be as complicated as combustion engine automobiles, segway is one man transport, making simple large planar moving platform for 50 people and with several wheels this becomes “segway bus”, simple and cheap alternative to conventional busses. With electric motors it will be slow and slow to accelerate but super cheap and does the same that normal city bus does. This platform can carry 5 ton cargo using about 6 to 30 wheels, and so it can be used as “city truck” cargo transport variant as well. Cheap electric vehicles do not need the same crash test standard as cars, they can have flexible bumpers 10 -20 inches (25 - 50 cm) long with leaf springs and other springs and energy damping flexible mechanisms, bumper flexibility takes kinetic energy in crash situation so car structure itself can be unhardened and light. Structure can be even made of wood, balsa wood or some exotic high Janka hardness wood, or self-supporting plywood structure like De Havilland Mosquito, or combination of both. Structure can be canvas covered. Making wood structures should be cheaper than metal manufacturing. Moped cars and japanese microcars (used in Japan only) does not need extensive crash standard legislation either, so cheap electric vehicles should have similar legislation. Other light vehicles are Ryno, Segway Centaur etc, and Yasa makes electric motors in UK. Three wheeled light vehicles are best because they have less rolling resistance than four wheels. When weight increases to normal passenger car levels no advantage is anymore due to tyre deformation, but light vehicles benefit with only three wheels. And wheel-aerodynamic best is vehicle that has three wheels but like fourwheeler with one wheel missing, two wheels are in line so aerodynamic wheel drag also minimum. Also “two wheel four person car” can be made, segway type balance handling and 4 small assistant wheels (not powered) at the vehicle corners with aerodynamic fairings, about 1 inch (2,5 cm) off the ground. When moving and accelerating this vehicle rises to two wheels and when stops or makes tight turns rests on assistant wheels on either side. This is like four person two wheel motorbike - car hybrid. It can have two wheel steering if needed. Two main wheels are inline so it is motorbike like car. Also internal combustion engine models or hybrid-electric vehicle models can be nade, not just electric cars with 2-4 wheels. Scuderi engine, Miller engine, ceramic (rotary) engines, advanced internal combustion engine, with direct air injection, Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition etc. can be used. Making chassis as light as possible perhaps can be made if chassis length to wheels is (front of front wheels, between wheels, and after rear wheels) 1:2:1 or 1:1:1 length. Cars would look strange with short wheelbase but large over wheelbase chassis, cab forward design with even front doors front of front wheels. But weight distribution to chassis and strength is optimal (?) with these chassis to wheels length measurements I think. Making light and roomy chassis is perhaps possible using small two cylinder turbodiesel with comprex supercharger partly under driver s seat, and this seat is cab forward front of front axle. Small engine turned sideways can be under cabin floor or even under seat, in front of front axle, in front wheel drive car. If car is hybrid model electric generator/motor is under another front seat. Rear wheel drive car has engine under trunk, rear seat is behind rear axle except passenger foot perhaps, axle under seat or even rear seat completely behind rear axle, if chassis dimensions are 1:2:1 or 1:1:1 where “2” and middle “1” is wheelbase length. Making small 2 cylinder diesel out of larger 4 cylinder is easy design. Engine crankbase can be slightly off the car center line if transmission differentials (wheel axles) are near and transmission corrects this off the center basing. If car has three wheels third wheel can even be between front seats, rear wheel drive and engine at the back. Engine should be light (aluminium block) and compact if it is front or rear to wheel axles or under seat. Also vans and lorries build with short wheelbase and chassis stretching over wheelbase (1:2:1 length, where 2 is the wheelbase length and 1 length over wheelbase fore and aft), if that makes chassis strength optimal. All those designs have no conventional drive shaft, engine is directly connected to transmission and transmission to powered wheels. Also heavy 6X4 trucks can be made without drive shaft, engine is below cargo bed not upright but turned sideways between front and rear wheels, connected to transmission and that to rear wheels, drive shaft weight is not needed. But flywheel and radiator is a problem. Engine can have two flywheels, both sides of engine block, so two small instead of one large flywheel makes thin engine. Radiator can be under chassis facing towards ground, but that is not suitable for offroad use, dirt and mud makes radiator overheat. Amphibious vehicles can have engine at rear of rear axle, below cargo compartment, straight connection to propellers that move vehicle at water (power output from crankbase two sides of engine, front one to wheel transmission, rear to propeller transmission). Engine and transmission should be compact and light if put over front or rear axle, but if engine is between front and rear wheels, long and thin like straight-8 engine can be used. Alternatives to conventional radiator is thermoelectric (electric) cooling (Peltier). So vehicle does not need radiator at all. Thermoelectric cooling can be made to generator (ATEG) that makes electricity for hybrid car for example, so if ATEG is used in passenger cars with engine under cabin floor or seat, does not need radiator and ATEG makes heat turn to electric power in hybrid and other cars. Air cooling (engine is facing ground, so it is cooled by airstream like motorcycles) and ATEG combined can solve radiator problem. Also cars can be build like old “lifting body” rocket aircraft. Car itself is like big wing that uses airstream to lift the weight of vehicle off the ground. Spoilers like sports cars can also be used, but not to pull down but lift up the vehicle. Spoilers are controlled like F1 car spoilers, if wheels began to slip spoilers automatically lowers to neutral or pull down position. Also speed automatically decreases if car is going to lose control because of airlift. Heavy trucks with numerous spoilers over cargo compartment can benefit this “airlift”, and front of truck designed as “lifting body” to use airflow. if vehicle weight is minimum because of airlift also power needed to move is minimum. Heavy electric cars should benefit this airlift principle. But mass retains the same so stopping at high speed with large mass but little weight is difficult, using computer control to speed and spoilers that turn from positive to negative force, even airbrakes like aircraft can be used. Modern brakes make vehicle to stop quickly so this airlift principle to save fuel and energy is realistic. Wind is also a problem in airlift principle, sudden strong wind can lift the vehicle completely off the ground, but computer controlled safety margins and vehicle handling that reacts in fraction of a second can be used that use wind speed meteorological information which is received by radiowaves etc., or wind meter in vehicle. Heavy cargo trucks build with wooden cargo bed were build in 1950s, and wooden panel vans also. Using wooden components should be cheaper than metal structures, even in heavy vehicles that are budget priced. Even wooden chassis trucks could be build, 1,5 to 2 tons cargo max. Heavier trucks have metal chassis but other is wood made, cabs etc. Point is that wood structures can be build like WW2 wooden airplanes, wood joints are simply glued together, so unskilled labour can be used and no metalwork, that woodwork can be done in some third world country cheaply. And because in electric cars batteries are heavy anyway, heavy wooden chassis can be accepted. So cheap electric cars made with wood in India, China or South America with very low prices can be made. Electric motors and batteries are outsourced of course and bought from international manufacturers, and metal truck chassis also if heavy electric truck is build. Bamboo and balsa are best materials, old wooden aircraft were build using spruce, if Janka hardness and weight is carefully choosen between wooden components and CAD computer design done, glued joints like wooden airplanes (Hughes H-4 and Curtis Caravan etc.), cheap and light electric cars can be done. Also plywood can be very strong, and new materials like nanocellulose, Stockholm institute of technology “woodfiber strong as steel”, or wood fiber mixed with carbon fibre or graphene making “Flaxwood” type composite material. Cellulose + wool can be turned to package material replacing plastic bags and wood foam can be used as insulation material in houses instead of synthetic foam. Wooden small airplanes can also be build in third world countries cheaply, unskilled labour can build wooden structures. Wooden cars or airplanes can be plywood or canvas covered. Electric batteries can be organic redox flow battery, organic radical battery, polymer battery, UltraBattery or some metal-air battery type etc. If light fast cars are unsuitable for “airlift” principle because of safety, heavy trucks can benefit from airlifting spoilers and heavy electric cars. Also city traffic that has low speeds, if series of spoilers are in city bus or city traffic truck or van in their roof, these automobiles have slow speeds but still wind can give them lift assist so their weight decreases and cars move using less energy. But speed is slow, so no safety concerns. It depends on wind speed and wind direction but in slow city traffic airlift principle can be useful and “wind harvesting” used in automobiles to decrease their drive weight, putting several wind spoilers on the roof of city cars, busses and trucks, spoilers lift some of the vehicle weight if wind blows in suitable direction. Old Federal Truck Company trucks had 1930s Waukesha four cylinder large engines that had only 700 rpm normal operating range but big torque. Small compact and light 2 or 3 cylinder diesel and gasoline engines can be made and put them to cars and trucks not upright but sideways below or inside chassis, large cylinders and slow rpm. Wooden structure can be self-supporting like WW2 wooden airplanes, made of plywood, like self supporting metal bodies of cars. In WW2 in Finland airplanes were build with wood and glue made from boiled potato peels, but it still was strong enough for tons of wing loading. But when those planes were stored outside in rainy season for months, glue detoriated making airplanes nonairworthy. If those cheaply made glues are used in wooden car manufacturing and then glued joints covered from elements using canvas or plywood, not expensive glues are needed and manufacturing is even cheaper, in Africa not very often rains and when glued surfaces are covered no danger to glue detoration exists. Carbon or glass fibre or graphene structures can also be used in electric cars but that makes them expensive. “Aerodynamics research revolutionizes truck design” Nasa 2008. Compacted graphite iron can be used in combustion engines (better than aluminium). Nasa made GAP diesel engine that is simple casted, but version that is automotive not airplane engine can be made also. If GAP engine is used in aircraft old Napier Nomad cylinder size and straight-8 design would make 27 litre engine, cheaply manufactured. Weight is not so important (reason for GAP engine dismiss) if fuel economy is good. Bourke engine and stepped piston engines are other efficient types. Airplane diesel engines that are 1000 hp class like Andy Higgs Advanced Components V12 1000hp or SNECMA SMA engine demonstrator (1 cylinder is 135 hp), so V16 or boxer16 versions of those would be about 1350hp and over 2000 hp respectively. Those are challenging turboprops and can be used in WW2 replica aircrafts or modern COIN miitary aircraft, altough they are diesel engines. Those replica and COIN planes can be build “outsourced” in some east european factory or in India etc. GAP engines can be build in auto engine factory cheaply. If two V12 engines are bolted into one like old V24 engines, or three boxer8 engines to boxer24 with one crankshaft, power is 3000-2000 hp. X or H engines also from boxer or V engines are possible, and boxer engines from inlines. If GAP diesel engine is straight-12 that is possible because GAP has little vibration, and two straight-12 GAP engines make one 24 cylinder twin inline / straight-twin engine, or two engines in one like Detroit Diesel Sherman tank engine. Fuel from industrial waste gas using LanzaTech ethanol making process for combustion engines. Transonic Combustion fuel injection and FreeValve engine are new techniques. Dearman Engines or Di Pietro rotary engine pneumatic engines use compressed air. Stepped piston engines, Hooper Engineering, Lotus OMNIVORE, Norton Villiers FITS, Orbital Combustion Process engine, Wolf stepped piston, OSP Engines opposed stepped piston. Nissan Dig-T R, Huyndai Theta, Volkswagen Bodack, BMW water injection, Volvo turbo compound, Mercedes-Benz stepped bowl combustion, Ford reverse flow head diesel are big engine manufacturers new designs. Liquid Piston X, Achates Power, Ecomotors OPOC are more exotic, and Butterfly engine Micha Helbig, Pendulum combustion engine, Huttlin Kubelmotor, Coates engine, T head single cylinder, Ski-Doo engine, PMMG4Hybrid, IRIS, Wavedisk, Wytulani motor rotary, Kamenov rotary, CHB-Evo, rotating cylinder engine Efraim Cohen, Double bar single wheel rotary, 4-stroke rotary Sumiyuki Nagata, Turbocombustion Green-Engine, Doyle engine, Rotron wankel, Revetec etc. Swing piston engines, or six stroke (M4+2, MAHLE, NYKADO, Velozeta, etc.) are also. Crower engine is hybrid steam and combustion, and BMW turbosteamer is turbo-compound. Turbo compund principle like Napier Nomad is suitable for aircraft engines, either “afterburner” turboprop behind piston engine or basic turbo compund, afterburner version can also be used like turbo compound and only in take off etc. afterburner is used. Using CVT transmission in turbo compound and crankshaft connection makes flexible use possible. Aircraft diesel engines can be very large, SMA 24 cylinder boxer engine can be coupled to make H-engine of 48 cylinders, if 1 cyl. is 0,62 litre, 48 cyl. is 30 litres about. Power is 6500 hp, 8000hp with turbo compound, perhaps 9500hp if BMW turbosteamer principle is used. Also water methanol or nitrous oxide injection can be used, with these from 8000 hp perhaps 9500 - 10 000 hp is possible (20 -25 % extra power). From 30 litre engine. Biggest western turboprop is 11 000 hp, and now diesel engine is nearing jetliner turbofan power. Boeing 737, 757 and Airbus A318, 319, 320, and 321 can use diesel engines, altough 2 - 6 engines is needed (if diesels are 8000hp - 10 000hp class) instead of one turbofan in one wing, and 6 - 8 diesels in Boeing 757 (not made since 2004). If power is 10 000hp also 8 engines is enough instead of one Boeing 767 turbofan, and for other Airbus types also. Nasa GAP diesel with quadruple arrangement is essentially four inline cylinder blocks (four separate engines) in one, if cylinder size is same as Napier Nomad 12 cyl. inline is 41 litres and quadrupling it makes about 165 litre diesel engine, made with simple castings cheaply in automotive factory. Additional turbo compound section (not so cheaply made) can be added to engine. Now jetliners (now dieselliner aircraft) can use standard car and truck diesel fuel, biodiesel etc, not jet fuel. Additional power using water methanol injection, where part of it is sprayed in cylinders and rest of it used turbosteamer cooling of engine block, or nitrous oxide or N2O / alcohol (methanol?) mixture that is stored as cold liquid in airplane (in high athmosphere temperature is cold) and then sprayed to cylinders and rest to turbosteamer use in cylinder block, or afterburning turbo compound use, N2O / alcohol mixture or pure N2O is ignited at afterburner providing additional power and additional power cames from it as fuel mixture in cylinders also. Short time use during take off using cylinder injection, but turbocompound can be used always (it does not use extra fuel, but increases power using hot gases from engine). Turbosteamer or “afterburning” turbocompound used only sporadically, because it uses much fuel / liquid, but it can be used longer than N2O or N2O + alcohol or water-methanol injection to cylinders and without engine damage danger. Or use simply water injection in cylinders and water turbosteamer. If turbocompound afterburner has high temperature perhaps water-methanol mixture burns also, or then use other alcohol than methanol with water, or just alcohol (methanol, ethanol etc.) without water in cylinders and afterburner for extra power. Comprex turbocharges are not used in aircraft engines, as turbocharger or turbocompound generator / turboprop, but in automotive diesel engines they were used long ago. If military transport planes would use diesel fuel that would simplify logistics, trucks and tanks could be fuelled straight from transport planes fuel tanks. Old “warbird” replica aircraft can be made with diesel engines with suitable power, and these same types that are sold to airplane enthusiastis can be sold as military COIN aircraft at the same time (Piper Enforcer). Infrared emissions are also smaller if diesel turbocompound is used instead of jet or turboprop. SMA 1 cylinder demonstrator can be made with different configurations, from 4 to 12 cylinder inline, 16 or 24 cylinder boxer, two boxer engines coupled for 32 or 48 cylinder H- engine. Andy Higgs Advanced Components makes another powerful aircraft diesel. Nasa GAP could make cheap diesel. Engine weight is not so important, in jetliner use at least, but fuel efficiency is. Multistage superchargers (at least two stages), ported, intercooled etc. for high flight altitudes must be used, and turbo compound systems, with or without “afterburner”. if air intakes, separate from diesel air intakes, are in turbocompound section also, operated hudraylically or electrically, to bring fresh air to turbocompound or turbocompound - afterburner, that makes it almost additional turboprop connected to diesel aircraft engine. When afterburner is not used or flying speed is high air intakes are smaller and when afterburner used or speed is slower they go larger. Not just gases from engine but additional air is mixed in turbo compound, if that makes turbocompound to work better, like bypass turbofan, or turboprop, with or without bypass principle. If afterburner is not in turbocompound section and never used, air intakes can be fixed style. “Afterburner” means in this text turboprop, like Napier Nomad first version, not afterburner like jet aircraft. It is in fact possible to create diesel - turboprop hybrid engines, with turbocompound-prop powerpacks manufactured by different makers than diesel manufacturers, sold separately as additional equipment to diesel aircraft engines. Combined diesel-turboprop has best of both worlds, in takeoff it uses turboprop booster and diesel power, in cruising speed diesel only, super-economical, with turbo compound extra power that consumes no extra fuel. Those engines can revolutionize air travel. Turbo compound-prop is connected to same propeller that diesel engine is, but separately, through CVT transmission or other. Small and medium airliner aircraft can use them, altough perhaps it must be 6-8 diesel engines to have power of one turbofan, wing is from root to tip full of engines. Ceramic combustion engines can be made also, not just aluminium or compacted graphite iron (or compacted graphene iron). Some old wankel engines had about 1 metre diameter, used in natural gas pumping. If Liquid Piston X or other rotary engine has large cylinder diameter it can be used as aircraft engine that can replace large turbofans, even jumbojets could be powered with internal combustion (piston) engines, rotary or other compact but powerful piston / pistonless internal combustion engine type. Like Tyson Garvin wankel engine, pistonless rotary engine etc. Nasa GAP diesel is not actually simple casting, but complex, but it is single piece casting of complete engine or half of engine, done cheaply, so “simple casting” refers to that. Zoche diesel has 2000hp radial engine, but as design stage only, and RED engines has 700hp diesel. In Youtube there is “17 liters diesel radial engine (stjärnmotor)” but no mention about horsepower of it. Opposed piston engine (OSP Engines opposed stepped piston etc.), Bourke engine, stepped piston engine are known from long ago. Washable high flow panel air filter in diesel car is simple way to improve engine performance, but user must take care of fiter maintance. In cars and trucks turbo compound diesel that operates something like arcraft “bypass turbofan”, extra fresh air directed to turbo compound section together with hot gasses from engine create sort of turbofan turbocharger without using extra fuel. Rotors of turbocharger take extra energy from fresh air mixed with hot gasses, which gives more power than only hot gasses from engine. Something like ported turbochargers of today. Turbocompound or turbocharger section would be very large compared to piston engine itself, but perhaps very effective. Also comprex turbocharger perhaps can use similar turbofan (extra air plus hot gasses from engine) principle. Comprex charger can also be used as turbocompound, like ordinary turbochargers. At least in cars and trucks comprex charger offers more torque than ordinary turbocharger, without turbo lag. Other unconventional turbochargers can be used, “Evolution of the pressure wave supercharger” 2017, “Wave rotors technology and applications” 2005, “Observations on and potential for mechanically supercharging a downsized passenger car engine” 2017. Also is possible to create turbofan - internal combustion engine hybrids, ICE is connected through shaft to ducted fan, engine itself is outside ducted fan. Ducted fan becomes jet engine in takeoff, turns itself in “jet mode” burning fuel like jets do together with ICE in compound arangement, in cruising speed only ICE is used to propel ducted fan, In cruising jet is used also in small power to not cause aerodynamic drag inside engine if jet power is stopped when aircraft flies with ICE power only. So it is like bypass turbofan but power for it comes from ICE and jet engine in compound mode or ICE only propels its turbine blades in cruising flight, jet is used in engine only to minimize drag inside engine in “slowburn” mode in cruising speed. ICE is outside turbofan to minimize drag, engine & transmission which increases rpm to bypass turbofan speeds is inside wing or airplane hull, only shaft goes to turbofan. New extremely bypass turbofans have very large diameter, so also slow turbine blade speeds, ICE can be connected with them through powershaft, perhaps several ICEs in triple or quadruple arrangement with transmission to one turbofan. So in cruising speed turbofan uses ICE to power turbine blades, in takeoff only normal jet mode is in use, together with ICE in compound arrangement, and in cruising “slowburn” jet mode to minimize drag inside engine, only little fuel is burned using this mode and little power also generated, most power comes from ICE when in cruising. Also diesel can contain up to 30% water, in diesel water fuel emulsion, so if atmospheric water generator is inside airplane, condensating and distillating water from air, up to 30% of “fuel” that engine uses can be made from air which thru plane flies, and plane needs about 19% less fuel to carry due to improved efficiency. In ships this means 30% ship diesel fuel can be filtered and distillated from ocean in which the ship sails. Water must be filtered and processed as water fuel emulsion before it can be mixed with diesel fuel, but because water is in atmosphere and oceans, diesel engines can use it with max 30% of fuel mixture. AWG generator in aircraft is perhaps possible, condensating or otherwise separating water from air. Powershaft arrangement takes 90 degree turn to turbofan turbine shaft to power it, so ICE is outside of ducted fan, in wing where powershaft makes another 90 degree turn or in airplane hull, so differentials or planet gears etc. are needed in powertrain. Also ATEG can be used in aircraft engines to generate electric power. In netpage Douglas Self “The unusual internal combustion engine pages” are many ICE designs, and split cycle-, axial engine, swashplate-, and cam engines in Wikipedia. DynaCam 12 cyl. FairDiesel 32 cyl. RCV Engines Ltd and Coaxe Engine Company are aircraft engines. Rotrox, VTES, electric supercharger and TurXbine are superchargers etc. Turbineless jet engine has been patented. Some turbo compound patents are US 4535592A and US 5775105A, these are old but other patents refer to them often, pat. US 5303546. Duke engines, RandCam, Fibonacci offset rotary steam engine, Reisser cycle, Mark Jafar-, Ahmet Dalmizrak-, and Craig Laycock concept piston, elliptic engine Nadir Aksoy, Subaih rotary, a totally concentric rotary, variable compression ratio engine, circular piston, TOCPE Dariusz Wojtowicz, ZZ02, Libraloto, Papp, Whipper, continuously variable displacement engine, Hubregelmotor wobble plate, CV engine David Haley, LeVaughn C Weland, Yonto pump mechanism, Sanchez engine, Usef Zaree circular-, 651 Star engine etc. Achates Power diesel engine is suitable for airplanes and cars. Spark Controlled Compression Ignition or Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition can be used, biodiesel with ethanol, or diesel with low octane (perhaps less than 80, Mazda Skyactiv X, perhaps 60 - 75 octanes ?) “biogasoline”, made like biodiesel from organic materials, or low octane bio - fossil fuel mixture, with diesel fuel in those two-fuel engines. Ships can use water from ocean as water fuel emulsion, cleaned and filtered, and aircraft separate water from air to save fuel for diesel engines, 5-30% water diesel fuel mixture is possible, BMW experiments show that 5% more power and 13% less fuel is possible, so 1,05X1,13 = 19% is improved overall fuel efficiency. Using turbosteamer principle in addition to this saves 15% more fuel so 34% is total fuel saving if engine takes water from ocean or air when engine is in ship or in aircraft. Army (land forces) use diesel and biodiesel or biogasoline. Army is good making organisations, so army could collect foodstuff waste and other biowaste from itself and from civilian biowaste also at least near army bases and big cities, and turn that waste into biofuel for its own use. Waste collecting can be done by army troops of special waste management organisation inside army, collecting also foodstuff and other biowaste from civilians in big cities and near army camps, and perhaps collecting biowaste from all over the country. Using army organisation to collect waste makes collecting cheap, and army can now use only renewable energy as fuel and does not need fossil fuel sources to operate, when foodwaste and other biowaste is turned into biofuel. Surplus biofuel what this organisation makes can be given to government or sold to civilian use. Also biofuel factories are needed, but when operated by government or army price of biofuel is cheap. If simple electric vehicles, more powerful than electric bicycles, dune buggy- like four person electric vehicles can be build in bicycle factory without expensive tooling, they would be cheap, and cheap way to travel, in third world countries. Murilo Luciano avalanche drive is gravity engine system. Such perhaps could be used in bicycles as replacement for electric bicycles. It uses gravity power to move cycle, not elecricity. It is not perpetum mobile, but simply weight that is raised couple of metres and when weight lowers by gravity it powers bicycle, until height gravity force is used and bicycle stops or continues with pedal power. Gravity weight can be passanger or cargo in rikshaw / bicycle. Other gravity power mechanisms than Luciano avalanche drive could be used in “gravity powered bicycle”. Tricycle or quadracycle (rikshaw) is more suitable than bicycle, because cargo / passanger weight must be lifted off the ground, perhaps over metre or even up to 2,5 metres. Using jack to lift weight is perhaps needed. But when weight is lifted driver can use gravity assisted power, not just pedals. Rotrex traction drive, VTES supercharger, Volvo triple boost, Volvo PowerPulse, Comprex, and electric turbocharger are supercharges for internal combustion engine and turbocompound use, and Fixed Pitch Continous Variable Transmission, TurXbine and Fibonacci Offset Rotary engine perhaps suitable also. In two netpages: Evdriven and Greencargongress, in “Concept engine” sections are different engine types. Aquarius Engines single piston / cylinder is 86 hp engine with high efficiency, and Transonic Combustion injection a way to improve ICE also.

In Robin Hood Coop forums is “Modern biofuel / woodgas generator” post and “Hybrid airplane and autogyro combined” post, and “Using water as fuel” post, in those three texts is more about vehicles that use internal combustion engines or electric power to move etc. topics. About previous posts of “Forgotten innovations of gasoline engines” above: Quantamagneticsstore (com) netpages are now closed, so is that generator not for sale anymore? It is greencarcongress netpage, not “greencargongress” in text above, and voanews netpage was for 2016 voanews article about Achates Power engine, altough I forget to mention it with voanews.