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Mass memory for cheap PCs

Cheap PC for third World market needs cheap CPU, cheap display and cheap memory. Cheap CPUs are available, and cheap displays also. But if memory is needed of hundreds gigabytes or terabyte or more, price of memory becomes obstacle for really cheap PC for third world market. So memory must be really cheap. One way is to use slow old style RAM and ROM memory that has become outdated when semiconductor manufacturing has shrinked. If DRAM or Flash RAM is cheap then battery backed Flash /DRAM can be used in cheap PC, instead of normal PC RAM memory. Small battery is in RAM card that provides backend if PC is not connected to powersource. DRAM or flash memory can be cheapest that is available in dramexchange netpage “project price” or other really cheap RAM price list. If cheapest RAM is type of memory that vanishes when electric current is turned off, small battery in memory card slot in PC makes sure that RAM memory stays if power of PC is cut off. ROM can be mask ROM, and in mask ROM card that can be changed so if ROM needs changes cheap mask ROM can be swapped. This for phones also not only in cheap PCs. Mask ROM is cheap when made millions of units. Really big memory, terabytes, can be if magnetic tape memory or large 12 inch optical disc is used. Magnetic tape cassette has price of about blank VHS cassette, but capacity of terabytes. It is slow to use but cheap. Optical disc 30,5 cm (12 inch) diameter has capacity of about 2 terabytes if it uses archive disc format (300 gigabytes in 12 cm format), that is version of Bluray for data storage (not bluray compatible but it uses bluray technology). If it uses 5-6 layers to store data it is 500 gigabytes in 12 cm disc and about 3 terabytes in 30 cm (12 inch) disc. Disc has size of old Laserdisc, but price of blank bluray discs is so cheap when made in China etc., so that 30 cm optical disc costs almost nothing when bulk manufactured in millions of units (one or two dollars for 30 cm two sided disc?). That is much cheaper than 2 or 3 terabytes of semiconductor memory. It is slower than semiconductor RAM or ROM but much cheaper, and terabytes capacity like magnetic tape memory. If disc is slightly over 30 cm, 30,5 cm equals 12 inch and and 32 cm is 12,5 inch (actually 12,55 in). If 5 layer disc has 500 gigabytes capacity as 12 cm disc, 6 layer disc has 600 GB, and 32 cm version of it 4,3 terabytes. If empty spaces in edge of disc and in inner size of disc (12 cm disc has 2,1 cm diameter empty space in middle of disc, 32 cm disc if same about 1/6 ratio has then 5,4 cm empty space in middle, that can be used as data storage). About 4,5 terabytes then fits in 32 cm optical disc (12,5 inch) two sides and 6 layers. This 4,5 terabyte optical disc costs about 1-2 dollars when ordered as bulk quantity from China or India etc, or from every place that has bluray manufacturing. It is much cheaper than 4,5 terabytes semiconductor memory.
Also optical disc can be analog music format replacing old vinyl LPs and cassettes. Optical analog like Laserdisc using PWM to store music, or similar optical system like optical film soundtrack. If bluray laser is used but analog electronics it is then “analog bluray disc”. What kind of error correction is possible in analog form? Using analog delay lines to correct mistakes or something else? Or disc is closed inside protective plastic package like first prototype bluray discs. Disc can bigger than 12 cm, 7 inch vinyl single sized (18 - 18,5 cm for example) or 12 inch (30 cm) like Laserdisc, both sides used and also multiple layers so analog information can be stored. Also protective plastic surface can be thicker than in bluray disc but using same material? It would then be like analog DVD or CD with protective surface of bluray disc. Semiconductor memory that is analog have been made, like phase change memory PRAM. So it is possible to make “analog memory stick” similar to USB memory stick and store analog music and sound. When disc is stereo it needs some system to put two tracks to one (stereo to mono) and back, if optical disc is used, but such compression methods have been invented (joint stereo, M/S compression etc). Or two tracks are scanned at same time. Simplest way is perhaps if 36 khz analog sound is divided to two channels, left channel is 0-18 khz and right channel is 18-36 khz for example. So stereo sound of 18 khz is possible using 36 khz mono channel. Slight phase / time difference between channels may be, but in earliest CD players also had slight phase / time difference and nobody noticed it. Quadrature amplitude modulation like analog TV to compress information and other analog TV type tech like analog delay lines (PAL TV) can be used, MUSE analog TV compression etc. to store analog music. Dynamic range compression / noise shaping like High Com, Dolby, DBX etc. Also multicolor light source storing analog information to multicolor storing disc, that would be like optical soundtrack or Optigan storing good sound quality music.
Archive disc is for large data storage, if discs would be 30 cm not 12 cm capacity would be 6,25 times more.
Also films stored in video then need not to be lossy compressed, only lossless compression for 24 frames sec. and then lossy compression upwards from that (up to 72, 96 or 120 frames sec., where always 24 frames are losslessy compressed and other extra frames are lossy compressed so frame rate can be 72, 96 or 120 frames sec). If discs were multiple layer archival disc type and bigger than 12 cm, up to 30 cm really good digital film quality without lossy compression blurred motion artifacts and “freezed” background, so perfect illusion of reality is possible in digital cinema in 3D. For analog storing of music: semiengineering (com) tag analog memory, patent 5684738 “Analog semiconductor memory device having multiple-valued comparators and floating-gate transistor” 1995, “Analog storage semiconductor memory” patent 20020089867 (2002). For stereo to mono conversion and back: pat 8111829: “Method and apparatus for encoding and decoding stereo signal and multi-channel signal” 2012.
For making really cheap phones and cost free internet to end user in third world: if that internet from high flying airplanes project that is promised to start in 2020 really begins, ground based teleoperators must change their pricing scheme also to cheaper, in third world. Advertisement money paid net connection using all kinds of methods to collect ad money, like used in Brave browser etc. money collecting systems. Telephone can be given away with advertisement paid Wifi (so it is Wifi phone), or telephone with 4G or 3G internet connection, where other than internet is disabled, so voice over internet must be used for voice calls etc. Price of that phone can be really cheap if cheapest possible components are used, roll printed battery, roll printed display, etc. and cheap quad core processor SoC. Ordered in hundreads of millions, price per phone is really cheap. It is so cheap that it can be given away together with ad paid net connection. Net connection is also limited, and data compressed to maximum, using simple graphics and other perhaps only dozens of kilobytes / sec low bitrate techniques. All expensive material is removed from this cost free internet, “zeronet”. Data is “simplified” to low quality / low bitrate and compressed (graphics, videos, audio etc. and also text compression used in text, IDBE text compression or other) before it is send to free net user. This phone and free (but limited) net connection would be available only in third world countries, perhaps only in poorest countries in the beginning, because there people have no money to pay for “costly” internet connection (it may seem cheap for westerners, but in third world it is still too costly), altough phones might be cheap already. It is the cost of internet connection that prevents people to use internet in third world countries. So ad paid free net connection is needed. With phone with cheapest RAM and ROM memory etc (cheapest old style flash memory with own small battery backed? And mask ROM? Cheap memory cards also are needed, with cheap price per gigabyte / megabyte but perhaps slower than modern phone memory cards and perhaps bigger in size, because that memory uses outdated semiconductor manufacturing and less shrink than modern phone memory cards). There is plenty of old abondonware games etc.,old low bitrate software that can be the content of free net. But perhaps emulators is needed in phone s software so that those old and simple abondonware programs can be used. Phone can have cheap video glasses (roll printed?)or simply use Google cardboard virtual glasses system where phone screen itself is virtual glasses and simple plastic support makes phone “video glasses”. Millions of old phones and PCs are discarded each year. If internet connection is free (advertisement paid) in third world counries, old phones and PCs could then be shipped there and given away with free net connection.
Because old PCs and phones are otherwise electronic waste, and waste management costs money, perhaps someone in waste disposal department even pays money for it that those old phones and PCs are shipped away to third world, where they could have new lease of life when given away with free net connection. Electronic waste is becoming problem, so instead of putting millions of old phones and PCs, laptop PCs, tablet PCs etc. to carbage bin and then to some electronic- waste depot, all this electronics could be recycled if there is free net connection in third world. So teleoperator / net operator have no costs of phone or PC given away with free net connection if that phone or PC is old and discarded from the western countries. Only free net connection costs would net operator / teleoperator have and those are paid by advertisements and other commercial methods (in third world free net connection).
Small 6 cm or 8 cm diameter DVD or DVD audio channels only discs can be used to store audio or video content. When only audio (music disc) is used video shows black picture or test picture at slowest video bitrate. Ecodisc is cheap DVD. Cheap ecodisc DVD at 6 cm, 8 cm and 12 cm size can replace CDs as music format in third world, and it can be used as video format also. License payment free audio and video codecs are suitable for cheap audio / video players. Ecodisc DVD / audio discs can be packed in cheap paper sleeves or cardboard sleeves. Perhaps even bluray disc can be 6 cm or 8 cm diameter “mini - bluray” for third world market, bluray disc manufacturing in China etc. makes so cheap bluray discs nowdays (bluray discs in bulk order from factory from China or India etc). Cheap bluray disc, with video or audio content, needs also cheap bluray player for third world market. License free audio and video codecs still are possible in bluray - type disc altough not straight using bluray standard? If bluray disc is 6 cm size it has so small reflective surface, and four such discs can be manufactured in factory in same space as one 12 cm disc, manufacturing costs are very low compared to ordinary 12 cm bluray disc that is cheap already when made with bulk order straight from factory. Small 6 cm, 8 cm or 12 cm discs can use archive disc data format (double data density compared to normal bluray). Economics of scale manufacturing, if millions of those discs and players for them are manufactured, price per disc is low and price of player also. Even 4 cm bluray disc would be feasible, it has about 1/12th of reflective surface of 12 cm disc, and 9 of them fits in same place as one 12 cm disc in factory, so manufacturing price is really low. But if it is in archive disc format it can store 4 gigabytes in 4 cm disc and 50 gigabytes as 12 cm disc single layer.
NAND flash memory costs 4 dollar for 128 gigabytes according to dramexchange netpage. So 32 GB costs one dollar, and terabyte costs about 31 dollars. If cheapest possible semiconductor RAM memory is not used in cheap PC solutions for third wold market, cheap optical disc is even cheaper. Some amount of cheap semiconductor memory can be in cheap PC, and then huge amount of optical memory in form of 32 cm disc or magnetic tape memory of terabytes amount.
Cheap soundcards for musicmaking are not manufactured anymore, everything is in software nowdays. But if MPEG4 Structured Audio (Bonneville CPS) or MPEG4 AABIFS or FAUST programming language is made to hardware chip, cheap sound chip, which is standardised, sound chip can be inside cheap keyboard or computer etc. and does not waste PCs memory when used. This modern sound chip can include old legacy Yamaha sound chips and Roland chips hardware structure too, together with modern chip hardware design that works like MPEG4 Structured Audio or FAUST programming.
Also many computer programs have manual when downloaded from memory stick, internet, optical disc etc. It is instructions how to use that program which has been downloaded. If those instructions are available as PDF file, those instructions can then be printed to paper. So not just some pop up window is open where instructions are when program is used, but also same instructions can be in PDF file that can be printed out and read in paper form.

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Old phones could / can be donated to third world countries, and user there does not even need paid phone / internet connection (SIM card). Even without paid connection (SIM card) phone can be used sending emergency call (great help in some poor third world country). Phone can also browse internet without SIM card and phone display shows simplified results of browsing in list, and that list is seen even without SIM card, so although phone have no paid connection it still can do (limited) browsing of internet. Phone can also be used as media player, audio and video content, and playing phone (computer) programs, like games, educational programs, writing and reading text, having useful information in its memory (healthcare and educational information) etc. duties. Phones need electricity so primitive but cheap solar cell or Peltier element (heat) charger can be given away with phone. In makezine netpage is “$3 solar cell phone charger”. If primitive solar cell or Peltier element charger is mass produced its price would be about 0,1 - 0,3 dollars (just guessing). Charity organisation can pay that. There is different “donate your phone” organisations but few of them send phones to some another country, like to third world? Old outdated phones without paid connection (SIM card) would still be very useful devices in third world, if someone would just send there old phones that otherwise go to electronic waste bins or only to phone-donations that work inside some industrial country and they do not send old phones to some poor third world country where old phones would become most useful, even without SIM card.
Information can be spread without paid internet connection, using “sneakernet” (automobiles, trains, bicycles etc.) carrying cheap memory cards. It is like sending (electronic) letter to post. If cheapest possible bulk memory cards are not used, even piece of paper can include information, colour code printed in paper few inches wide can include megabyte or more information, camera of phone reads that like QR code. But prices of bulk memory cards in mass factory order are nearing the price of colour printed sheet of paper.
So donating old phones to third world countries would be great help, and user there does not even need paid connection (SIM card) to use that phone as media player, education / information machine etc. very useful duties. Phones (feature phones and smartphones) are smaller and lighter than other PCs (laptops, tablet PCs) so ferrying them overseas is cheaper, and phones need little electricity. Old smartphones and feature phones in industrial countries have no value, they are electronic waste, but in third world they would become “personal computers” and media players for people that otherwise have nothing.

Price of neuromorphic chips, FPGAs, FPAAs and other reconfigurable computing chips can be cheaper than they are. Usually chips are separated from wafer, but when chip has reconfigurable electronics like neuromorphic chips and FPGAs etc. do, faulty parts of chip can be avoided when signals go around faulty parts. So those chips that otherwise are discarded, can be used. If there is 3-4 price classes of how damaged the chip is, but if it is even partially useful (FPGA etc.) it can be sold at cheaper price than fully working chip. Chips can also be grouped to bigger clusters, 2x2=4, 3x3=9, 4x4=16, 5x5=25, 6x6=36, 8x8=64 etc. Those clusters are separated from wafer as one chip, and packaged in one package. Now in one plastic IC chip package has many processors, not just one. Some of those processors may be faulty, some working 100% properly. Faulty processors are not separated and discarded, they are together with other processors in the package. Price of this arrangement is less than separating every processor from wafer and then discarding faulty processors and then packaging every processor in its own package. Also wafer size chips can be made. Sometimes small 3 inch, 4 inch or 5 inch wafers are used. The whole wafer can be simply put to plastic package. It has large amount of separate processors. Faulty processors are not removed from wafer. This may be much cheaper than removing every processor from wafer and packaging every processor separately. FPGA and neuromorphic chips may benefit from this kind of system. Also for example very old FPGAs are still in production, their price is 1,5 - 7 dollar or more per one unit in big quantity order. Making large blocs of them in one chip can make cheap but efficient FPGAs. Even wafer size neuromorphic chips and FPGAs / FPAAs can be made, even size up to 8 or 12 inch. Other type of processors, not just reconfigurable computing can use this “many processors in one wafer block / chip and faulty processors not removed” - packaging to make electronics cheaper, CPUs and DSPs can be manufactured same way.
Memory chips can benefit if instead of manufacturing different memory capacity chips in different wafers only only one wafer mask is used and different capacity chips are made simply separating different amount of memory blocks from wafer, and faulty part of memory is not discarded, it is inside that chip. Part of memory chip is faulty but otherwise chip is working. Faulty part of memory is simply not used. That would make memory chips cheaper. Even 12 inch wafer size memory “chips” can be made.
Processor in memory or PIM can make effective and cheap processors. That s because memory chips are manufactured in huge quantities, so they are cheap, and if PIM reaches same manufacturing scale it is cheap also. What if every memory chip has its own PIM? This small CPU in memory takes some amount of space from memory, but can offer computation boost to computer s own CPU. Some computer CPUs don t perhaps use those extra computing PIMs in memory chips inside PC / Tablet PC / cell phone. Then computer CPU can simply ignore PIMs in memory and use memory chips as just memory chips without their own small CPU. If memory chips are manufactured so that each memory chip has its own PIM, it would increase computing power in a cheap way, and memory capacity, altough less than in ordinary memory chip, is not so much lessened, but computing power of PC has increased.
Roll printed electronics is coming, but what products can be made with it? For example “digital trimpots” that are DACs. If DAC can be made using roll printed electronics, and trimpots are used in many electronic applications, and roll printing costs almost nothing in mass quantities, roll printed digital trimpots have big market. Other products that would have market is old digital music synths from 1980s. Earliest of them (Yamaha DX7 and other early digital synths) were made at 4 micron (?) IC manufacturing. Roll printed electronics can perhaps replicate those circuits, and make 1980s digital synths back again production, this time almost no cost manufacturing per unit. Simple roll printed sheet of plastic that has picture of synth, and touch sensitive surface in keyboard picture so when picture of key is pressed it is like pressing key of real keyboard, without velocity sensitivity etc. because this is cheap reproduction. Also picture of buttons of synth can react when pressed. This “playable picture” of 1980s synth can have MIDI control perhaps, for proper playing. Fairlight, Synclavier, DX7 etc. reproduced as less than dollar priced “playable picture”. Memory and transistors are problem in roll printed electronics, but advantages have been made in roll printed transistors, and memory can be cheapest / largest dimensional size / slowest available silicon memory from regular manufacturers, and then those silicon memory cells are hybrid printed with “real” roll printed electronics.
Analog ASIC manufacturing is also cheap nowdays. Perhaps old expensive modular synths, like Moog Emerson, ARP 2500, Buchla etc., can be replicated using analog ASIC. Those old modular synths were mostly monophonic, so simpler than polyphonic analogs with 6-8 voices? Moog Emerson in one ASIC, it perhaps have no flexibility of real modular synth, but software emulations have come close to real modular systems, and they have no real world patch points either, everything happens inside processor. Instead of digital emulation can be analog ASIC and real analog synth in one chip.
Trueno is analog synth in USB stick. Similar packing of those analog ASICs inside USB stick or Expresscard PC card package, and using graphical GUI for control, would make cheap analog supersynths. Also polyphonic synths can be made same manner (Yamaha CS80, Korg PS3300, Polyfusion, RFS Polykobol etc., synth is in one analog integrated circuit).
Third world needs cheap gear, so all those microcontroller synths that are available can be packed as USB stick versions, or even memory card (MicroSD card size microcontroller music synth) etc. cheap devices. Several cheap microcontroller synths can perhaps be packed in one USB stick. Cheapest music machine is rompler / sample player. That can be in USB stick or in memory card form and cost very little, few dollars or less than dollar.
Already 2014 quad core ARM SoC A33 cost 4 dollars, and now A13 (S3?) costs 1 dollar. 2014 quad core Intel Atom had 5 dollar price. Now chinese- made licensed Atom should have even less price, in 1 core format at least. So CPUs are nearing microcontroller prices. x86 processor can play softsynths. So cheap softsynth platform with Android or Linux or Windows is possible. Windows has price, but it is cost free in cheap devices, and if functionality is restricted to softsynth playing cheap softsynth playing PC is possible in musicmaking duties, priced at few dollars. Intel Quark also is x86. Those Atom, Quark, or ARM processors can perhaps be packed in MicroSD card in very small hardware softsynth player with memory, or in USB stick. Those memory card synths can be used without phone / PC, only memory card reader is needed. Playing mobile Android softsynths and other music software in ARM processor, and/or Linux / Windows music software in cheap x86 processor can make cheap hardware musicmaking machine priced at few dollars. It can be just box with processor and memory and MIDI control from keyboard controller. For third world market.
Other products that use small form factors (memory card, USB stick) and have CPUs / Microcontrollers inside can be made for third world market. Only memory card port or USB port is needed, no phone or computer to use them.
Old memory chips from old PCs and phones can be recycled in cheap phones. Memory chips are useful even when old, unlike PC processor that goes outdated after about couple of years use. Also FPGAs are useful even when they are old, and DSPs also. So recycling those can make cheap electronics. Instead of scrapping them when they enter electronic waste bin, they can be recycled. At least in China this recycling is used. FPAAs like Anadigm FPAA can be used in electronic projects. Clavia Nord in 2008 or 2009 made Nord Modular with Anadigm FPAAs and FPGAs but cancelled that product. Noise can be problem in FPAAs, but when cheap products are made for mass production, not super quality is needed.
Using phone sound chips and other cheap sound chips (DREAM, EMU, Yamaha SMAF etc.) can be used in very cheap synths for third world market (few dollar priced, in some USB stick or PCL Mini card, ExpressCard, or just inside SD memory card, synths are even build inside midi cables in nowdays, Larger PC cards like PCL card / mini card can hold multi- chip synths etc.), and also old PC sound card chips, altough not made anymore, in some chinese factory if someone orders them they will be made again. Gakken Pocket Miku is one example of such cheap music making product. Also cheap game consoles can be made, and old game consoles from 1980s recreated using printed electronics.