It is proposed in so called revisionist view of history that life of prophet Mohammed was modelled after stories of Moses and to lesser extent Jesus. Also lives of Muawiya, Abd al-Malik and Abu Muslim could be sources of Mohammed s life story, according to scholars. First four caliphs were modelled after Adam, Noah, Abraham and Moses (Volker Popp 2008). Also caliph UIthman s name is anagram of apostle Thomas s name, Uthman as a word is not semitic origin some scholars claim. Gospel of Thomas and Childhood gospel of Thomas (Arabic gospel of Thomas) were only arabic gospels in time of Mohammed. In text by A. J. Deus: “MHMT/MHMD and the seed of Koran” is that Talmud prophecied prophet to come in 570 AD and 632 is important year also according to Talmud for coming prophet. This coming prophet has name Mehmet and he is a merchant, and he has the keys to paradise, like Mohammed has in Koran. Deus proposes that those Talmud texts were written in 7th century and are eyewitness to Mohammed, but if those Talmud texts were written in 5th or 6th century, it is then possible that jews expected this prophet to come. Lactantius also has Prophecy of Lactantius where he write prophet to come that invades whole world by military conquest, but that is antichrist. Other writings of Lactantius later were included in verses of Koran, and Lactantius s view of law and jurisprudence was included in islamic law. In text “Early Islam an alternative scenario of its emergence” 2009 by Markus Gross is comparison of Mohammed (praised) and Mubarak (blessed), both words can mean same person. Mubarak is Benedictus in latin. I instantly thought about Saint Benedictus (Benedict). Is there comparison between life of Saint Benedictus and Mohammed? This is list: 1: Both were orphans whose parents died when they were child, both were raised in rich and noble family, 2: at the age of 14 (Benedictus, according to story, altough he was 19) / age of 12 (Mohammed) they both meet monk in a road while travelling, that monk shaped their future by telling that their future is life as holy monk (Benedictus) / prophet (Mohammed). 3: They both had much older female companion, Cyrilla the nurse of Benedictus, Khadija the wife of Mohammed. 4: After death of this older female companion Cyrilla, Benedictus s household was taken care of his sister Scolastica, Mohammed after death of Khadija by his second wife Sawda (Mohammed had other wives later but it was Sawda who took care of his household). 5: Both abonded sinful city life and meditated in a cave, Benedictus three years in solitude before he started preaching, Mohammed had three years between his first vision and starting of his public preaching, and three year gap when messages from Gabriel did not came. 6: Benedictus had in cave experience of untity with God, Mohammed received messages from Gabriel. 7: Then both started preaching and gather small amount of companions. 8: But then both meet resistance and persecution, Benedictus was persecuted by Florentius, which is verb version of word of flower, verb of flower is zhar in arabic. Mohammed and his companions was persecuted by Abu Jhal. 9: Benedictus s life story includes two poisoning attemps, jew poisoned Mohammed (altough this Mohammed s story could be from buddhism). 10: Both had to escape persecution hurry to save their lives with small group of loyal companions. 11: Both started again preaching in another place, and in this new place both had big success of their preaching and they began have large amount of fame and followers. 12: Benedictus went to Montecassino and cleared old pagan temple of Apollo from pagan relics and turned it to church, Mohammed went to Mecca and cleared Kaaba from pagan relics and turned it to mosque. 13: King Totilla send impostor disguised as him to Benedictus to find out if Benedictus is holy man or not, and Benedictus revealed the impostor, I remember sometime reading same kind of story about Mohammed, but don t remember where it was, or possibly I just remember wrong. 14: Benedictus had four principal companions, Mohammed had four principal companions too. In Benedictus s rule religious life is organized by four class of monks, early islam was organized by four first caliphs. 15: Both had 12 close companions but this is just reference to Jesus for both of them, 16: Mohammed had larger circle of 72 companions (Jesus again) or 73 companions according to different muslim sources, 73 is the number of Benedictus s monastery rule, it had 73 chapters and “73 tools of good work”. Mohammed prophecied that islam will be divided to 73 sects / denominations, which may be reference to 73 chapters / tools of good work of Benedictus s organisation of religious life. 17: Both died after short fever sickness, Mohammed had head disease but it was fever that was reason of his death, 18: Mohammed died at about age of 64 in islamic calendar, Benedictus was 66 or 67, even their birth and death dates are almost same, only small difference (in islamic calendar, third month for Mohammed, third month in gregorian calendar for Benedictus, in julian calendar also almost same dates in time of Benedictus 1500 years ago?, Benedictus died about 11.3 according to julian calendar, or I am wrong? And Mohammed 12.3 according to islamic calendar. I am not sure about those julian calendar times, because I have not found information about julian calendar dates of Benedictus from Benedictus s age 1500 year ago). 19: Benedictus had two adopted sons, Mohammed one adopted son, so both of them adopted sons. 20: Benedictus had two adopted sons, Mohammed had two sons with Khadija that died, but also had two daughters Fatima and Zainab who lived to adulthood and whose children lived beyond childhood, and Mohammed also “adopted” in his deathbed two of his own grandsons, Hasan and Husain. 21: Benedictus s adopted sons were Maurus and Placidus. Maurus is word meaning maurian, moor, people of north Africa. It means dark skinned in specific meaning that this person is from middle East / north Africa, but is not black skinned like negro. There were lots of arabs in Roman empire just before its fall, who reached high ranks in Roman society, generals, senators, and one emperor also. Number of immigrants in Rome reached peak just before fall of Roman empire. Maurus was from noble family, but this family could be arabs (arabic, aramaic, syrian), living in Rome. That would explain his name, and because of that stories of Benedictus s life could be spread quickly in Arabian peninsula among christian arab tribes, which there were many in those times, even faster than after Saint Benedictus s biography 593 AD was published in the west. 22: The other Benedictus s son was Placidus, latin word meaning “calm”, “gentle”, “peaceful”, perhaps even “graceful” because there is no latin word meaning graceful. Hasan in arabic means “handsome”, “the good”, and “doer of good things”. Similarity in names again. 23: Mohammed s adopted son was Zaid ibn Harithath, word harithath comes from greek word aretas, Aretas was popular name of arabian kings and princes, word aretas means “virtuous” and “pleasing”, so similarity to placidus again. 24: Both Benedictus and Mohammed had “prophetic life” of same length, they both met monk in a road when aged 14 and 12 respectively (according to story, altough Benedictus was actually close to 20), and then lived about 66 and 64 years (Mohammed in islamic calendar was 64 years old), only difference in prophetic life is in the beginning when Benedictus was 2 years older when meeting the monk in the road and then lived 2 years longer after Mohammed. 25: John the Baptist was important to Benedictus and was his spiritual guide, John the Baptist was important to Mohammed also, even in extent that Yahia which is misspelling of Yuhana (Johannes / John) is sometimes included in companions of Mohammed in some stories altough Johannes died long before Mohammed. 26: Scolastica, who later become venerated saint, died six weeks before Benedictus, because of sickness. Fatima, the most venerated woman in islamic world, died six weeks after Mohammed, because of sickness. According to another story Fatima died because of consequences of injuries (or injuries were reason for sickness). 27: Six days before his death Benedictus ordered his grave to be opened because he knew he is gonna die soon. Mohammed prayed in burial ground between graves, and immediately after that become sick because of fever (20.2 in islamic calendar) and died soon after. Grave is mentioned in both texts, but dates differ, according to same chronicle Mohammed died 1.3 in islamic calendar altough 28.2 and 12.3 are “official” death dates, from shia and sunni sources. So according to chronicle Mohammed died 10 days later from grave episode, islamic calendar 29 days in month. However according to same chronicle Mohammed s health worsened suddenly in 24.3, six days before Mohammed s death, and “everybody knew he would die soon”, so that happened six days before his death like Benedictus s condition weakened six days before his death. 28: There was two different poisoning attemps in Benedictus s life story, and Mohammed was poisoned by jew, and then his grandson Hasan that become Mohammed s successor and islamic leader, was poisoned also. So both stories have two poisonings. 29: The name of Benedictus s nurse was Cyrilla, name that comes from greek word / epiteth “Kyrie”, meaning “Lord have mercy”. The name of Mohammed s nurse was Halima, meaning “merciful” and “pleasant”. “Allah the merciful” is known epiteth in the islamic world. So Cyrilla s name was from epiteth “Lord have mercy”, and Halima s name was “Merciful”, and that is related to epiteth “Allah the merciful”. So both nurse s names come from praying formula / epiteth, and both names came from epiteth “God is merciful”. 30: There was islamic sect called “Ghurabiya”, word meaning ravens, name came from saying that Mohammed and his cousin Ali were so similar that they cannot be distinguished from one another like ravens cannot be distinguished from one another. When Benedictus was attempted to be poisoned God send raven that saved Benedictus. Ghurabiya sect believed that God s message was intented to Ali but Gabriel mistakenly send it to Mohammed, and that Ali was messenger of God also. This doctrine that God s message was send to wrong person, and that raven symbolism may be reference to Benedictus. Ali means “elevated” and Benedictus / Mubarak “blessed”. So is this doctrine that God s message was originally meant for Ali is reference that God s message was send to Benedictus, because Ali is God s messenger also, but Mohammed was the one who got it also, and Mohammed left Benedictus / Ali in his shadow? So this may be the hidden meaning of Ghurabiya sect s symbolism, with its ravens (raven is also symbolic creature in Benedictus s life) and two prophets. Reference to two prophets (Ali and Mohammed) may be sign of earlier prophet (Benedictus) and later (Mohammed), later one was modelled after the earlier one. 31: Hadith of a bird: this story tells that Mohammed named Ali as person that Mohammed favoured most, and this happened through bird symbolism. Somehow bird become bond and link between Ali and Mohammed. This may indicate Benedictus as Ali and Benedictus s connection with Mohammed. Birds were very often connected to symbolism with Benedictus, ravens feed him in the cave, demon appeared in form of blackbird to Benedictus, and raven saved him from poisoning. But this similarity to Benedictus is bit shady, bird is only mentioned in the story, so similarity may be coincidental. 32: Story of the mother bird: Man put baby birds in the box and presented it to Mohammed, the motherbird flew around the head of the man who put birds in the box, and Mohammed ordered the man to set baby birds free. The motherbird tried to feed baby birds but they were in the box. In the cave birds feed Benedictus. Also in the cave demon appeared as blackbird that flew around Benedictus s head. Bird flew around man s head also in motherbird story. So this story may came also from stories about Benedictus. 33: Miracle of the stone: Benedictus raised heavy stone to its place in Montecassino monastery, Mohammed raised black stone of Kaaba to its place in Mecca. There is also broader comparisons, Benedictus saw a vision of how whole world becomes one under God s rule and guidance, Mohammed s vision was to bring whole world under God s rule by military conquest. Benedictus is the patron saint of Europe, Mohammed patron saint of islamic world. Benedictus saved Europe from fall to pieces in times when dark middle ages were darkest, and preached unity that “saved Europe” in troubled times. Mohammed appeared in Arabia when they had dark times, saved them from disorder (like Benedictus saved Europe from disorder) and united arab tribes with preaching of unity. Mohammed had two adult daughters that had children who begin family lineage, but Zainab s lineage ended and only Fatima s continued. Many muslims trace their family lineage / bloodline to Fatima. Benedictus s two adopted sons were beginning of spiritual descentants of Benedictus, some even trace their spiritual “bloodline” back to Maurus and Placidus. Altough monks do not bear children, the word “bloodline” is what I read in text about Benedictus, Maurus and Placidus and their (spiritual) descentants. What is statistical propability that all these similarities are just random, and not intented? Similarity even extends to people s names and dates, not just events and persons. Stories and writings about Benedictus were “bestsellers” everywhere in christian world in 7th century. In netpage “chubin net” (Massoud Amirkhalili) is also interesting information. Another comparison can be made with Jesus and Buddha, life of Jesus can be “reconstructed” using stories of Buddha s life, stories of Buddha and Jesus are so similar and seem to refer same events. But which came first? First biography of Buddha, Buddhacarita was from 2th century, perhaps late 2nd century AD, and surviving written texts are from 7th century or later. In India was christianity from 1st century AD onwards, and by time those surviving texts about Buddha s life were written christianity was well established in India. Also christian escatology was heavily included in buddhist theology in mahayana buddhism that begin emerge from centuries after death of Christ. The coming messianic incarnation of Buddha that appears in the end of times is even named Jesus of Nasaret in some modern buddhist sects. If surviving written documentation and its age is compared, stories of Jesus s life came first. Historical person Siddharta Gautama lived 500 years before historical person Jesus of Nasaret, and buddhism existed long before christianity, but when it comes to life stories (biographies) of those persons, biography of Buddha was modelled according to biography of Jesus. Stories of Buddha s life in written form have survived about 500 years later in time than oldest surviving fragments of Jesus s life (about 100 AD gospel fragments) and quite comprehensive texts of gospels have survived about 220 AD, not even counting references in different early church father s texts. Buddha s biography in written form comes from over 1000 years after Buddha itself. Buddhism began adapt christian escatology and messianism and life of Buddha was adapted according to it. Mohammed s first biography, that disappeared, was written by ibn Ishaq, Ishaq is name meaning Isaac, so he was from judaic tribe that converted to islam. That would explain the prophecies of Talmud appearing in Mohammed s life story. Also montanism (Montanus) could be one influence to islam, in netpage “rootsofislamtruehistory (com)” in section “Did the sira of the prophet borrow from ancient stories?” is montanism and islam. Montanism had two female preachers, Priscilla and Maximilla, and Mohammed also had in his house two women that were imams (preachers), Aisha and Hind Umm Salamah. The name Aisha means “she who lives”, and Priscilla means primordial, “she who has lived from ancient times”. The name Hind means 100 camels, so it is in one word meaning of both prosperity and many (numbers). Female / male name Maximilla / Maximilian also in one word can mean both prosperity and many (numbers). Also manichaeism was influence to islam, many manichean teachings and doctrines were adopted in islam. I read somewhere that the famous “sura of light” or night journey story is manichean, in China in archeological studies was found about 5-20 years ago old manichean scripture that was the sura of light text but the man who made journey to heaven was Mani, not Mohammed. I read this about 5-20 years ago in some scandinavian science magazine (Illustreret Vedenskab? Or it was some other science journal, I don t remember what year it was). Those stories where someone makes visit to third heaven, fifth heaven, seventh heaven etc. were usual in ancient times, in persian and greek folk tales someone rides with a horse to heaven. One was gnostic story (without horse riding, found in “New testament apocrypha” listings, “Coptic apocalypse of Paul”) and there was at least one other similar story in apocrypha, now lost. Those gnostic trip to heaven stories influenced a story where Mani goes to heaven and then that was copied to sura of light where Mohammed goes to heaven. Also ramadan and “the night of power” were manichean feasts originally. In netpage “savingtosuitorsclub (net)” is “Mani, the prophet? Or is islam manichaenism revisited” is comparison between manichaenism and islam.
Maybe something should be added: “Analysis of the koran using mathematical code theory” by Jean-Jacques Walter, and in netpage danielpipes (org) / comments / 228387 : “Review of syro-aramaic reading of the koran” and other messages that are in that same message chain.
Other texts: Abdelmajid Charfi: “The koran text and its variants” (“Al-Mushaf Wa Qiraatuh”), Emran El-Badawi: “The Quran and the aramaic gospel traditions”, almuslih (com) netpage: “The impact of aramaic (especially syriac) on the Quran”, Mohammed Lamsiah: “Maxtutat-al-Quran” (“Quranic manuscripts: an introductionary study of early manuscripts”), and “The elephant story in the Quran. Myth, history or both?” 2017, Ercan Celik: “Who were Abu Lahab and his wife? A view from the hebrew bible”.
In netpage islamic-awareness (org) is “Concise list of arabic manuscrits of the Quran attributable to the first century hijra”. That is list of manuscripts.
George Jabra Al-Kopti: " Christianity and Islam the mutual understanding and the development of the early relations till the end of the Umayyad Islamic rule in the middle east, with special focus on the identity formation of both communities".
Ibn Ishaq was from christian background I now found out, not jewish, (as I wrote in previous post above). The cave of Hira in Jabal al-Nour mountain have got its name from city of Hira (al-Hirah) perhaps. In the city of Hira was bishopic seat of church of the east, this may be the reason why that cave is named “the cave of Hira”.
Also there is clear similarities between buddhism and islam. Mohammed was born in the year of the elephant, and elephant was important creature in the birth of Buddha also. Both Mohammed and Buddha had 10 important companions listed as their “apostoles”. Both Mohammed and Buddha died because of poisoning (according to story) because of jew / hindu. This seems to be just one and same story, told 1000 years apart, in almost every detail this story is the same, only person (Mohammed / Buddha) changes. In koran is sura 109, that text is actually almost direct transfer from buddhist sura from India (Markus Gross: “Fruhislam und buddhismus” 2009). Mystic number 786 in koran is buddhist praying formula “om” in sanskrit letters, written in mirror image perhaps (written from left to right, or right to left, result is 786 or “om” in sanskrit). Even Mecca and Kaaba are build along buddhist model of Nava Vihara and Bodhgaya Mahabodhi temples. Black cube of Kaaba was style of buddhist temples in Nava Vihara and in other places. During hajj pilgrims run between two hills, running track, length of the run and its position and distance to main temple are exactly copied in Mecca from Bodhgaya Mahabodhi temple. During hajj people wear white robe which is buddhist style of pilgrims (and hindu also) and they have bare right shoulder which is also style of buddhist pilgrims. The forbidden acts (Ihram) of hajj pilgrims are copied from similar forbidden acts of buddhists. The order not to drink wine comes from buddhism, one of the most important forbidden things for buddhist is wine. (Markus Gross 2008 “Buddhistische einflusse im fruhen Islam?” and 2009 Fruhislam und buddhismus). In netpage Islamicate (razib com) by Razib Khan is “Between the saffron and scimitar” 2018, in there is that islam had its indian (buddhist) period early on, and madrassa schools are made after model of buddhist vihara monastery schools, according to Christopher Beckwith. In netpage standpointmag com is “Monks, magi and mosques: religion on the silk road” by Michael Nazeer-Ali 2017. There is strange text in netpage Chinese buddhist encyclopedia: “Kalachakra prophets: Mehdi, Kalki avatar and the Messiah”. In it is claimed that black stone of Kaaba is Shiva Linga. In Kaaba is also gold dish or plate where is name “Vikramaditya”, who was old king / emperor of India. From islamawareness netpage: “Similarities between Islam and hinduism” by Zakir Naik.
There is no evidence of historicity of Mecca during Mohammed s lifetime, Mecca appears only 200 years after death of Mohammed in historical sources, and early stories about Mecca tell that place was fertile place, not in the dry desert, there was figs, olives, water canals and two mountains. So it is proposed by K-H Ohlig and others that Mecca was originally city of Merv in Persia (during that time). Merv was center and capital of buddhism in the west, and in Merv was also seat of bishop of church of the east. That could explain why Kaaba is build in same style as buddhist temples in that time, its size and shape, black cube covered with black canvas. From Khorasan (Merv) come three armies that won three arab civil wars, in 7th century AD Abd al-Malik was in / come from Merv, in 8th century muslim “royal family” abbasids, in 9th century al-Mamun who was governor of Khorasan, in 9-10th century AD many historians and hadith writers were also in Merv / Khorasan (Al-Nasai, Abu Dawud, ibn Maja, Muslim, Al-Balahudri, Al-Tabari). During 3th century AD king of Persia Shapur I forced aramaic christians of Mesopotamia (city of Hatra) to move to Merv, where they were isolated from main population. They became sort of religious fanatics (according to Gross, Ohlig and Volker Popp). That may explain the birth of new religion that separated itself from mainstream christianity. Their main enemy was not zarathustran / manichean surrounding religion but fellow christians nestorians, and they themselves were unitarian /arianist (Areios / Arius) christians (K-H Ohlig: “Von Baghdad nach Merw” 2009, and “Wer hat Koran geschrieben?” 2014, Volker Popp: “From Ogart to Samarra” 2014). Also from netpage altafsir com / tafasir asp 16.5 “Tanwir Al-Miqbas Min Tafsir Ibn “Abbas”, The Tafsirs” 2019.
Finding parallels between koran / hadiths and bible / gospels: from netpage archive org: “Biblical verses that agree with Quran - God is one - Islamic english book” Alhamdulillah - library blogspot com, netpage abuaminaelias com: “Parallel sayings in the bible and Islam” 2013, beliefnet com: “Jesus and Mohammed - the parallel sayings” 2002, biblecompare wordpress com: “The bible and the Quran”, Safi Kaskas: “The Quran with references to bible” 2016, Gabriel Said Reynolds: “The Quran and the Bible: text and commentary”, Joey Green: “Jesus and Muhammed: the parallel sayings”. Also comparing apocryphic and other than bible texts to koran / hadith: patheos com / blogs netpage: “The hadith and the jews” Philip Jenkins 2016, Brannon M. Wheeler: “Prophets in the Quran”, Roberto Tottoli: “Biblical prophets in the Quran and muslim literature”, Mustafa Akyol: “The Islamic Jesus: how the king of jews became prophet of the muslims”, netpage: forums catholic com: “Apocryphic gospels and Quran” 2006. Other parallels may be, koran (Q) 7:40 / Matthew 19:24, Q 21:105 / Psalms 37:29, Q 23:102-103 / Matthew 11:28, Q 48:29 / Mark 4:26-28, Q 19:7-11 / Luke 1:18-75, Sahih Bukhari 496 / Epistle to hebrews 1:10-12, Sahih Bukhari 12 / Matthew 7:12, Sahih Bukhari 2816R2 / Epistle to ephesians 2:8-9. Also story how Mohammed during his night journey had number of daily prayes reduced from 50 to 5 seems to be parallel of Genesis 18: 24-33.
There is text “Some fresh bible parallels Kusejr Amra” in biblicalstudies org uk netpage. It does not show in Google browser but using Microsoft browser it is quite easy to find. That text was published around year 1907 or so.
There is netpage tingismagazine com, which first was paper magazine founded by Anouar Majid. From Tingis Magazine “topic” section and from there “Islam”, articles in that section written by Anouar Majid are worth reading, for example “Koran redux (2)” and “Islam: the arab religion”.
There is netpage “The quranic arabic corpus” in corpus quran com, and netpage analyzequran com, and netpage qurananalysis com / analysis (with concordance, word context etc).
Also netpage thequran com in arabic and thequrandilemma com in english.
Netpage wasatononline wordpress com “Between western revisionism and Islamic tradition” Ustaz Azfal Bin Anwar 2013, Joseph Azzi (Jusuf Qazzi): “The priest and the prophet”, Mondher Sfar: “In search of the original Koran: the true history of the revealed text”, netpage abdullahsameer com / blog: “Was Mohammed from Petra or Makkah?”, Zia H. Shah 2011: “Petra: could it be Al Hijr as mentioned in the Holy Quran?” and “The Tamud: Petra and Madain salih”, A. J. Deus: “Sura 2: many qiblas?” 2016 and “Monuments of jihad” 2018, Abdullah Al-Udhari: “The arab creation myth” 1997, Irfan Shahid: “Byzantium and the arabs”, William al-Sharif: “Rethinking quranic studies”, Asma Afsaruddin: “The first muslims”, Ruqayya Khan: “Did a woman edit the Quran: Hafsa and her famous codex”.
Shabbir Ahmed: “Islam: the true history and false beliefs”. Altough western scholars are claimed about revisionism or “orientalism”, in this book is that in Islam almost from the beginning has been “revisionist” undercurrent, if revisionism means separating history from stories. In page 6 is list of 24 names, some of their chronological dates are islamic (AH) and some western (CE). Already about 150 years ago began in Islam new “revisionist” movement (again, altough Ahmed clearly shows that in Islam always has been similar thinkers, it is not a modern thing), so western scholars who began writing their revisionist studies about 50 year ago are in fact 100 years late of muslim writers. And Shabbir Ahmed published this book in year 2000 or even earlier, so it predates most of revisionist western studies. Ibn Warraq: “Skepticism and koranic research”. There is netpage sabkuchhh blogspot com “Books on Islaam” 2010 (Ravi Kant), Amar Khan: “Corruption and distortion (tahreef) In the Quran”, Abul Kasem: “A guide to quranic contradictions”, Syed Kamran Mirza: “Quranic erroneus”. Some of those muslim (or ex- muslim or whatever) writers are more polemic than western scholars can ever be: Mohammad Asghar: “Muhammed and his Quran: blood and lies at the root of Islam” in mafiadoc netpage. And there are others, like Wafa Sultan, Mona Walter etc.
In “Nahj al-Balagh” is about 80 letters that Ali wrote, and about 37 are declared “authentic” even by sunni scholars. But known letters of Mohammad are few: that which was send to foreign rulers (and no information that it was ever received anywhere), letter to Musaylima, and about 8 covenants to christians. There is huge disparity of surviving letters between Ali and Mohammed. There is theory that name Ali was first used as name of Mohammed the prophet and name Mohammed was used as name of Jesus. Remnants of this is survived in cult of Ali of shias. Later on epiteth of Jesus, Ahmad / Mohammed was transferred to Mohammed the prophet. In netpage cloudfront net / sirah_rasul_allah is list of early muslim historians, and whose writings have all disappeared. Only fragments of Ibn Ishaq s writings have survived in writings of Ibn Hisham and others. Letter of Umar II to Leo III has survived and Leo III s answer. Leo III wrote to Umar II that Umar I, Abu Turab and Salman the Persian collected koran. Abu Turab was another name of Ali. In Leo III s letter is that al-Hajjaj ibn Jusuf collected and burned korans and other islamic writings and only fragments of writings of “Abu Turab” (Ali) survived, and then al-Hajjaj rewrote koran himself. This information comes from Leo III, al-Kindi and Abraham of Tiberias. There is also multiple muslim sources that Abd al-Malik collected koran together with al-Hajjaj (Anouar Majid “Koran redux 2”).
About hadiths: netpage danielpipes org / comments “More doubts about Al-Bukhari by muslims and the source behind the source”. There are lists in internet about "125 weak and fabricated hadiths “, “100 famous weak hadith”, “How reliable are hadith? Some are contradictory” etc. lists.
There is writing (it is not in english language) " Koraanin tekstipohja raamatun, tutkimuksen ja kirkkohistorian valossa” by emeritus professor Jouko N. Martikainen (perustalehti fi netpage). In it is that parts of koran include syriac (syrian aramaic?) lectionary texts (writings of Ephraim the Syrian, Makarios / Symeon, and lectionary called “Shimto”), similarity of words dedookos / aslama and epididoos / dafaa, and that syrian has 22 consonants but arabic has 28 (rasm), and when these texts were transferred to arabic there were translation mistakes that were left in text (koran). This translation or transferring syrian texts to koran was done about year 800 AD or about 150 years after Mohammed s death, only then was translation possible according to development of arabic script.
There is in Persia Talikh-i Suleiman spring/well. That was place where Zarathusta received revelations from God and he teached his pupils there, and where Persian kings had religious rites. The “pharaoh” is mentioned about 200 times in koran, pharaoh may be persian king / emperor of the sassanid empire. The old name of Talikh-i Suleiman spring/well was Shiz. There is Zamzam well in Mecca. Shiz in Persia can be the original Zamzam well (Shiz / Zamzam name transformation), and that magical well was transferred to arabia like Merv was transferred to Mecca? G. R. Hawting: “The disappearance and rediscovery of Zamzam and the Kaba” First person who recognised Zarathustra as prophet was his first pupil Vishtaspa. First person to recognise Mohammed as prophet was Waraka. Mohammed had his cousin Ali that was important to Islam. Zarathustra had a cousin called Mahimad that was one of the most important first followers of zoroastrian religion. In some stories it was Mahimad who was first student of Zarathustra. Zarathustra had also one other important pupil in addition to Vishtaspa and Mahimad: Sasan. Did Sasan later become Salman the Persian in islamic mythology? Sasan is mentioned in book Denkart, written about 700 - 800 AD. The story of Zarathustra and his first pupils / followers predated stories Mohammed and his first followers 1000 years. Those three followers of Zarathustra is from book “Idän tietäjät” by prof. Martikainen (not in english language). Also zurvanism can be one source of islam (Helmut Waldmann 2008). There is also old strange mention by Ibn Saad that first angel that gave koran to Mohammed was named Serafel, and after three year gap another angel called Gabriel gave also koranic revelations to Mohammed. Michael Lecker: “The monotheistic cousins of Mohammed s wife Khadija”, netpage christoph-heger de: “Waraqa was no supporter of Muhammad s prophethood”. Also Wahb ibn Munabbih and ibn Abbas, source of “israiliyaat”. Netpage savethetruearabs blogspot com: “A true description of the prophet Mohammad s family (SAWS)” 2009. If it does not show in Google browser it can be seen in Microsoft browser.
Also koran quotes Porfyrios (Porphyry), Lactantius, Tertullianus (Tertullian), “Corpus hermeticum” (“The arabic Hermes” by Kevin van Bladel in archive org netpage) and legend of Alexander the Great. Koran also quotes Galenos (Galen), embryology in koran, those quotes propably come from Nafi ibn al-Harith who was medical doctor.
A. J. Deus has proposed that copyists of koran used old pergaments or papyrys, even centuries old, to make new copies of koran to look old. That s why in Birmingham koran pages text is written about 250 (?) years newer style than pergament or papyrys that is dated? And two pages have different radiocarbon dated age. Francois Deroche noted that pergament or papyri of some radiocarbon dated koran fragments is about 200 years older than writing on those pergament / papyri can possibly be. Could explanation be that when old copies of koran were changed to new ones, first when arabic script had not developed properly, old pergaments or papyri was used to make writing look older, and then when arabic script was developed in stage where there was distinction between old and new writing styles, new papyri or pergament was used but old style handwriting was used to make writing look older than it was? No vowel marks (diacritical marks) were used in text for that reason? Francois Deroche proposed that something must be wrong in radiocarbon dating because there is such big disparity between text and age of pergament / papyri. But how can radiocarbon dating fail only in koranic text and not other texts of same age? Older korans were not burned, they were buried to ground according to order that was given, and newer copies of koran replaced them. First korans before Uthmanic codex were burned, all muslim sources agree on that, and is information that al-Hajjaj burned all korans, but after that korans were not burned anymore, they were just buried to ground and new copies replaced them. Oldest koran that has at least some degree large parts of Uthmanic text is Samarkand (altough Samarkand koran still has only about one third of suras of Uthmanic koran). That was faraway Uzbekistan, far enough to survive successive koran replacements. Earliest koran that has some form of large parts of Uthmanic text is in Samarkand, not in arabian peninsula or Egypt or in some big islamic centres, altough they have climate that preserves written text perfectly. There is very few surviving early korans that have some significant amount of Uthmanic text if compared to surviving christian texts of same era 700 - 900 AD (bibles, gospels etc). The rest of koran texts have few suras or are koran fragments.
There was also other prophets in arabia during Mohammed s time, four false prophets, and then fifth (Saf ibn Sayyad), “From Musaylima to the kharijite Najdiyya” by Al Makin. Musaylima almost become the number one prophet, but finally Mohammed won him.
In book “The bible in arabic: the scriptures of the “people of the book” in the language of islam” by Sydney H. Griffith in “The Quran and the christians” section from page 16 onwards is that quarrels and disputes between melkites, nestorians, jacobites and arianists were included in koran, every christian sect was calling another as “heretic” in those times, and idea that only them had the text in right form and other scriptures “got it wrong”, etc. all this was in pre-islamic times. In previous post above is list of 33 events and there event number 27 where is mistake in date 24.3, it should be 24.2. Also “Heraclius s war propaganda and the Quran s promise of reward for dying in battle” by Tommaso Tesei, “The Quran: analysis and explanation” by Malek Meselmani, 3400 page book: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi: “Le Coran des historiens” 2019, and “A new horizon in Quranic hermaneutics” 1999 (by Moch. Nur Ichwan ). Ibn al-Rawandi: “Islamic mysticism” 2000. Hythem Sidky therealsidky on Twitter. About early Arabia: Ahmad al-Jallad on Twitter.
About Muqattaat: Christoph Luxenberg: “Syriac liturgy and the “Mysterious letters” in the Quran”. Those letters are shortened markings of psalms and other texts from bible, taken from church lectionaries. When lectionaries were translated to arabic and their text included to koran, church sermon (officium) markings were transferred to koran also where they become “mystic letters”.
Also netpage wikisource org “Paralipomena and the hebrew (aramaic) gospel” and from there “Later paralipomena” and from there “Islamic hadith”.
Oldest complete koran is from year 1203 AD (completed 17 ramadan 599 AH in marking of the koran), about 600 years after Mohammed. It was sold in auction for 2,3 million dollars. It is written in unpointed and unvowelled kufic. In that time (600 AH) islamic civilization spreaded from Spain to almost all Africa, from Middle East to Persia, from there to India, from China, from Malaysia and up to Indonesia. Vast population lived there, hundreads of millions of people. There must have been million korans in Africa, Arabia, Persia, India, China, southeast Asia and Indonesia. Where all those korans have disappeared? There is 600 year time gap, over half a thousand years between Mohammed and first surviving complete koran. Massive amount of islamic literature and other texts have survived, in Arabia, Persia, Spain, Africa, India, Malaysia, China etc, but not a single complete koran. Large hadith collections (Sahih Bukhari massive multi- volume hadith collection first copy survived about 100-200 years after it was written), there is tafsirs, al-Tabari s gigantic histories of over 10 000 pages or so, other works of arabic and other islamic writers, prose and poetry, philosophers, scientists, writings of ulamas, maulanas, mullahs, imams etc. Massive amount of islamic texts and literature of hundreads of thousands of pages from Spain to Indonesia and everything in between. But not a single complete koran. How this is possible? If Sahih Bukhari massive first survived copy is survived 100-200 years after it was written, why complete koran has survived only 600 years after it was written? And first complete koran is from about 200-250 years later than surviving Sahih Bukhari? Even list of pigs for taxation purposes has survived from those times and other historical and governmental archive texts (pigs were used as cattle in islamic areas, but only for non-muslim population). Would it be million times more propable that few complete korans would have survived from those times in that vast islamic civilization from Spain to Africa to India to Indonesia instead of rare and obscure text like that taxation list? There must have been million korans but only few or only one rare document like that. But it is that this one document has survived in our time, but no complete koran. Why? Because Uthmanic codex was completed about 600 AH. When there was central authority it could order older korans to be burned or buried, but when central authority lost its grip and islam spreaded far it was no longer possible (Jean-Jacques Walter). In 600 AH there was sunnis, shias, sufis (mostly in Africa), ismailites etc and arabs, turks in ottoman empire, India own muslim population, Persia, Spain, China muslims, tatars, mongols etc, dispersed and diversed in different sects and kingdoms and empires in different parts of the world. These kingdoms or empires would not take orders of their enemy kingdoms / religious sects to burn or bury their own korans. Uthmanic codex was fixed about 600 AH, and previous incomplete korans are work-in-progress texts. Older korans had fewer text / suras but after centuries more and more suras were added and more text to older suras so that about 600 years of work and after about 50 editions (J-J Walter) Uthmanic codex was completed about 600 AH. It has large amount of metatext where editors comment the text and those comments have became part of the text itself. Angelika Neuwirth: “Quran and late antiquity” 2019 chapter “13.2 Incapacitating rhetoric” to “13.5 Rhetorical triumph over the jewish and christian credos” in Google Books. Chapter / book “Processes of literary growth… Islam and its past” in Google Books, “Quranic self-retentiality as a strategy of self-authorization”, “Sunni reports about additions in Quran”. And verses removed from Quran. Uthmanic codex was slowly adapted by muslim population everywhere, that s why there are so few early korans compared to religious texts of other religions in the same era. Has anyone made comparative list of surviving hindu, buddhist, christian and islamic religious texts from 650 AD to 1400 AD, 750 year time period?