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Simple way to make better digital cinema

Cinemas are going from 4K to 8K but all digital cinema uses video compression. The problem with it is small amount of keyframes (intra-frames) used, which leads to “freezed” background in picture and japan anime - style looking background “still” picture. When there is contrast/brightness difference in cinematography between moving people / objects in front and still background, people are like one dimensional paper dolls cut separated from background. Increasing pixels don change this anomaly. Only way to correct freezed background thing is to increase keyframes to 24 or 25 fps, so that it has as much frames per second as normal non-digital cinema. The motion blur effect can be eliminated if human threshold of continuous movement, some 50 - 75 fps is achieved. So if digital cinema has 25 keyframes per second, and 50 inter-frames to correct motion blur, 75 frames per second is achieved and there is no motion blur anymore. I think it is better to have hyper-realistic non-motion blur cinema with 2K than heavily compressed 8K cinema with motion blur and freezed still background when there is no movement in background and video compression is in its maximum when there is no movement in picture. I even like old VHS tapes more than watching digital TV, because TV transmission clearly show unnatural japan anime - feel freezed pictures and motion blur or choppy movements, even so that in fast moving scene each frame is visible to viewer and picture becomes choppy. But not TV picture, digital cinema can be turned to hyper-realistic, when it is seen in big canvas, so that people can are “immersed” to picture.
Instead going to 8K (or 16K in IMAX) faster framerate that is beyond human observed flickering threshold must be used, and “normal” film cinema 24 fps or 25 fps keyframe rate. So ultra-realistic 2K cinema is better than ever-growing pixel count. 24 fps intra-frames (keyframes) + 48 fps inter-frames is then 72 fps total, but if human motion seeing threshold is 75 fps maximum, 25 fps + 50 fps = 75 fps is better. But 48 fps total framerate (keyframes + inter-frames) will do if motion observation threshold in humans is about 46 fps in lowest when there is no motion blur observed.
People complain about “cheap video camera look” in high framerate pictures. It is because digital cameras are used, so cinematography looks like TV production, not filmed in film camera. Simple correction is to use 35 mm film cameras with 24 or 25 fps framerate. The missing inter-frames to achieve 72 or 75 fps can be computer-generated. There are even TV sets that can generate inter-frames to fasten framerate. So film is cinematographed using 35 mm film, but digitally distributed, and in post-production framerate is increased from 24 or 25 fps to 72 or 75 fps using inter-frames. Also 3D filming should be used, there are adapters that can be connected to 35 mm film camera that make possible single strip 3D cinematography. Because in future all visual media is 3D, for posterity film should be shoot 3D even if nowdays version of the same film uses only 2D “flat” version in film distribution.
Also interlacing can be perhaps used in digital fast framerate video, if there is video compression that makes possible the 50% saving which interlaced picture has compared to full-frame picture. Or other versions of interlacing-type picture information saving, only every second pixels in picture shown and every first numbered left out and vice versa in next frame etc. so that 50% saving is achieved. But few if any video codecs / video compression methods support this. If they support interlacing and similar techniques they often have no effect in compression rate, so compressed video has 50% less information but it has almost same bitrate than in full frame compressed picture.
Also 35 mm cameras can use fast framerate like Maxivision 48.
The problem with digital film cameras is that they are no match for 35 mm film in contrast related things. So all those difficulties that high frame rate cinema has about “cheap TV picture feel” can be solved if 35 mm or 65 mm film is used, or IMAX film camera. 65 mm film can be used instead of 35 mm if high-resolution cinema is wanted, but if film uses digital distribution, 25 fps keyframes (intra-frames) + 50 fps inter-frames is suitable for digital movie with no observable motion blur and no freezed background in picture.
I think 2K picture with no motion blur and no still picture - like background against moving objects is better than highly compressed 8K picture. The hyper-realism in 2K, in 3D picture is better than 8K picture with motion blur and other artifacts in picture.
Also why cannot variable frame rate be used in cinema? in slow moving scene keyframe rate can be 25 fps but in perhaps only few seconds long fast moving scene keyframerate can jump to 30-, 48 -, or 60 fps. Digital camera is preferred in those fast changing framerate scenes, if otherwise movie uses 35 mm film camera. That leads perhaps to brightness / contrast problems when camera has different framerate in almost same scene, but those differences in picture brightness can again be computer corrected in post-production. Some computerized control system can also be in camera itself that optimizes camera automatically to different framerates in different lightning conditions. In digital metadata is control signals for digital film projector what framerate to use. So variable framerate can solve motion blur problems also.
Digital cinema uses 25 fps or 30 fps framerates, total framerate, keyframes and inter-frames included, so if in fast moving scene framerate suddenly fastens to 48 fps or 60 fps that lessen motion blur. So variable framerate in modern cinema standards and for example in HD Bluray can make picture quality better. In cinema theatre changes in brightness when suddenly framerate changes can be compensated if there is some kind of system, like metadata in film file that controls brightness, or in the post production of some film brightness levels are adjusted to different framerates with movie theatre conditions in mind. If changing framerate leads to changing brightness in cinema projector, if there is no change in brightness no adjustment is needed. In Bluray / DVD / Netflix distribution brightness adjustment with different framerates can also be used if different framerates has brightness effects in TV screen. But there must be standard that allow variable framerate in digital moving pictures, even in the same film and in the same scene of the film, framerate can change as fast as few second intervals, like there is variable bitrate in digital audio distribution. Normally only keyframe/interframe amount varies but framerate is normally fixed to 25 or 24 fps or 30 fps in film that is in DVD, Bluray or in digital cinema. Then are films up to 120 fps framerate in cinemas but they too have fixed framerate of 120 fps. But there could be digital film / video standard that has variable framerate from 24 to 120 fps and and 30-, 48-, 60-, 72- and 96 fps in between also (for example). Change from one framerate to another can appear every few seconds or perhaps even in split second time and then return back, and this switching between framerates appears as long as movie is going. So now motion blur is less in fast moving scenes. Digital camera that is used in cinematography must then shoot at 120 fps maximum, and variable framerates are decided during post production stage, or during filming.
If brightness changes between framerates and this change is individually different in every movie theatre because movie theatres have different sizes but projector is the same type, then there must be some kind of brightness measurement system in the movie theatre that measures silver screen brightness and adjusts brightness of different framerates so that there is no different in visible brightness as framerate changes. Perhaps only one measurement is needed when picture brightness in different framerates is tested using some sort of test picture like in TV in movie theatre, and then there is enough data that digital film projector automatically corrects brightness levels of different framerates in movie theatre, so now 24-120 fps can be used fluently in digital cinema without visible change in brightness between framerates if they change in few second or less intervals. If brightness really changes when framerate changes in digital film projector. If brightness does not change then those measures are not needed.
One way to make data rate smaller is if 3D movie has 120 fps rate but on the left eye it is 60 fps and right eye 60 fps and 120 fps is just combined framerate. Perhaps 48 fps + 48 fps (left + right eye) is enough for 3D moving picture if lowest motion blur threshold is 46 fps in humans.
Really good quality digital cinema is perhaps such that it has lossless video compression in those keyframes that digital cinema nowdays uses, in Bluray there is about 2 keyframes in second average and no more than 6-8 keyframes in fast moving scene usually. Then there is lossy compressed keyframes, and total of 24 frames in second is combination of both few losslessy compressed and lossy compressed keyframes, and then there is inter-frames so that framerate in 3D movie is 72 fps (12+60 fps, keyframes + inter-frames) in right eye, and similar 72 fps in left eye, so total framerate is 144 fps but divided between left and right eye so although nominally framerate is 144 fps it is split in two because picture is 3D.
One frame goes to left eye, then another another frame goes to right eye, then another frame to left eye, then another to right etc., so eye changes between each frame so total framerate is 144 fps, but divided between two eyes. It is better system than simultaneous 72 fps to both eyes at same time. 60 fps or 50 fps can be used also, so then combined framerate is 120 fps or 100 fps. Or 48 fps in each eye, it is enough if motion observation threshold in humans is about 46 fps. Then it would be 96 fps 3D.
35 mm cameras can also have fast framerate, 3D can be in single strip film without much extra film consumption. Then 48 fps 3D film in 35 mm is about twice as much film than normal 2D film at 24 fps. In post production this 48 fps 35 mm film can be converted to digital cinema format, 24 keyframes fps (both lossless and lossy if really good quality is needed) and then framerates over 48 fps computer generated inter-frames are used, so perhaps 3D film has 144 fps but it is divided between left in right eye so actual rate is 72 fps in each eye. That would be really good quality cinema. Also if film, 35 mm or 65 mm has not enough accuracy as digital pixel count is 8K and soon 16K in IMAX theatres, 35/65 mm film can be enchanted, its accuracy increased when film is turned to digital pixels in post production, digitally “cleaned” and its normal film material grain-accuracy synthetically increased to high pixel count when film stock is turned in digital form, scalable video coding is example how accuracy is increased, in similar way pixel count of film stock can be increased when film stock is digitalized, its pixel accuracy then after this treatment matches 8K digital format, if it is filmed using 35 mm camera with 3D adapter.
If 35 mm or 65 mm film camera is used and not digital camera, “TV picture feel” effect of digital cameras is avoided.
35 mm or 65 mm cameras can be used even when frame rate changes in film. There are two cameras positioned in almost same spot. When slow moving scene in film changes to fast moving scene, one 35 mm camera shoots at 24 fps for example and another at 48 fps. In post production when film is transferred to digital format it is edited so that camera that shoot 24 fps is in part of the scene that has no fast motion action, and then when suddenly fast motion action begins edit changes to 48 fps 35 mm camera in the same scene, that is positioned alongside 24 fps camera so that viewer hardly notices small change in view.
Also keyframes can be less than 24 or 25 or 30 in every second if smaller amount is enough that frozen still picture background is not observed. So perhaps 8, 10, 12 or 16 fps is enough keyframes per second. This keyframe rate can be variable like normal video codecs do, but instead of only 2 to 6-8 keyframes per second this has from 8 to 30 for example, (30 only for fast moving scene) so that sometimes visible choppy picture and frozen background that is sometimes seen in modern video compressors that use maximum compression is avoided and people in digital cinema see picture that is as good as 35 mm film (background is not frozen still picture feel but “living”, even if nothing happens/moves in the picture, and even VHS cassette has this advantage over compressed digital moving picture) and quality actually better than normal 35 mm film when there is no motion blur observed. This digital film can be shoot using 35 mm or 65 mm cameras so then is no TV picture effect either. If 2K or even 1K digital movie has those qualities it is perhaps better, in 3D form, than 8K heavily compressed digital picture in 24 - 30 fps seen in cinemas.
There is method used in TV sets, upscaling. In digital cinema too video information that has much more keyframes than usual compressed video but less pixel count, can be upscaled to large pixel count in projector system. So then less bitrate needed in actual digital transmission of digital film to theatres. So if good quality picture has no frozen background and no motion blur in 3D or 2D picture, but it has less pixels than 8K or 4K picture, that small pixel count picture can be upscaled using some specific processor developed just for this kind of movie theatre digital film pixel count increase. Or using software in PC to upscale picture, but then this upscaling perhaps takes several days in PC, so powerful specific upscaling processor can be in every digital cinema, and it is not needed to work in realtime, it can take many hours to process one film, or 12-24 hours, so film cannot be shown before upscaling processor has done its job, but film is then very good looking when upscaling algorithms have done their job. Observable picture pixel quality is then not far away from 4K or 8K picture although it originally was 2K or 1K or less than 1K high framerate and large amount of keyframe movie. When upscaled it is close to 4K or 8K high framerate and large amount of keyframes movie.
Perhaps sort of upscaling Ultra HD Bluray player can be done, that upscales 1K or 2K high framerate and high amount of keyframe movie to 4K format, and stores it to internal hard disk / semiconductor memory because this upscaled movie uses much more data memory than Ultra HD Bluray, and even in 1K or 2K form this movie needs multiple layers and two sides of Bluray disc. Processing takes many hours perhaps so if people want to watch movie with enchanted quality they must wait many hours until video is upscaled. So actual pixel count can be less than 1K in disc but it has so many keyframes that it fills both sides of Bluray disc with multiple layers that are maximum in Bluray, and then it is upscaled to 4K or to 8K standard that will take hours. Or less than hours if very efficient processor is used, but realtime playing is perhaps not possible. Also awful lot of memory is needed, so internal cheap optical read/write optical memory like stacked RW Bluray discs can be inside Bluray player, like optical hard disc drive.
The pixel count of digital distribution that goes to digital cinemas, and version that is sold in Bluray, is sort of sparse version of 4K or 8K moving picture, and this upscaling processor “fills the gaps”, increases pixels, so it is not 1K picture but data-sparse version of 4K or 8K movie and processor does its upscaling based on that. Digital cinema processor is more powerful than version that is inside Bluray player so cinema version of movie has better picture quality, and in the beginning this version uses more gigabytes than Bluray version, it can have terabytes of size even in the beginning when send to cinema but it is upscaled from there to even more so optical RW Bluray memory discs are needed lots in cinema processor version.

Television sets use upscaling to make 1K picture to look like 4K picture although it has not 4K quality, but it is better than plain 1K. If there would be standardized upscaling system in every TV then perhaps better video compression is achieved in digital transmission of TV picture. Bluray players could also have standardized upscaling system. Video codecs perhaps already use similar methods, but if some standardized upscaling processor in each TV set and Bluray player makes TV picture to be better quality this kind of standardized IC chip or software program can be in TV sets and Bluray players. Nowdays every TV and seems to have slightly different upscaling system. The video codec itself can made to use TV s or player s upscaling system , so it has data savings because moving picture information has been made sparse so that TV set or Bluray player corrects it during playback.
Similar method can be used in digital cinema also. Digital file of movie send to movie theatres is made sparse and then some sophisticated processor in movie theatre “fills the gaps” of information. Now video compression can be efficient and good quality picture can have lots of keyframes, and some of keyframes can even be lossless compressed, even if picture is 4K or 8K.
The processing time can be some other than just realtime processing. Similar method that internet transmission uses, soundfile or video file is opened and at the same when someone listens or watches video the system is processing sound or picture. In the beginning listener / watcher must wait some time when enough sound / video is processed and only then watch video or hear sound. Similar processing speed can be in special processor inside bluray player. The waiting time before bluray disc can be watched and enough video upscaled so that film can be watched up to end without stopping to process can be minutes long if really efficient picture refinement is wanted.
In digital cinema picture refinement process can take hours, but that dies not matter, movie theaters are not like internet, in movies video does not come from realtime internet transmission. So it does not matter if some specialist picture refinement processor that is manufactured just for this purpose, picture refinement for digital cinema, works for hours to make digital cinema picture good.
Lots of memory is needed. Bluray BD-ROM memory discs have lost their market share and are expensive, read-write BD-ROM. But mass manufacturing of usual Bluray disc is super cheap, only few pennies / cents per disc, and not much higher cost than mass manufactured DVD discs. So Bluray memory disc, multilayer, would be super cheap memory if it just would have customers to buy them. Because this cinema picture refinement will take perhaps terabytes of memory, dozens of terabytes perhaps, or hundred, in every movie theatre, as cheap as possible memory is needed. Bluray (BD-ROM RW) is cheap solution for that, 128 GB one side/256 GB both sides for few pennies / cents if really lots discs are mass manufactured, bulk price from factory. During picture refinement processing and during playback when digital film projector is showing the film in movie theatre, projector operator feeds RW BD-ROM discs to projector - processor combination constantly, some kind of hard disc style stacked discs system, optical hard disc, and cinema projector operator must feed the projector those stacked Bluray discs constantly as long as film continues, and take away those stacked blurays that are already watched by audience. So digital film projector operator just takes away and loads stacked blurays discs that are in similar arrangement like hard disc drive, he is like steam train driver who must feed coal constantly to the locomotive, until film ends. This same loading and uploading of RW Bluray discs must be done when digital film is processed in picture refinement processor. Discs are read-write type so they can be recycled and earlier film wiped out and new added.
In Bluray player is internal optical hard drive made of RW Bluray discs that store movie when picture refinement is done. This home TV version uses lots of less accuracy in picture so one optical Bluray hard disc drive is enough.
Semiconductor memory is one option, no BD-ROM disc loading needed, cheapest semiconductor memory (slowest memory) is sold at the price of slightly over 10 dollars for terabyte (bulk orders from factory) , but this is slow memory. But memory is needed only for storage of video, not used in memory intensive task like computer memory, so slow and cheap semiconductor memory will do in picture refinement.
So actual digital movie in Bluray disc or in digital movie file contains only “bare bones” of video information, the Bluray player or digital cinema processor in movie theaters constructs the actual video material from this sparse representation. Now really good picture quality can be in digital films, and it is so realistic, and maybe 3D virtual reality type presentation is possible, that there is no observable “wall” between viewer and video information, and watcher can be immersed to picture.
About optical disc: the analog optical disc has been studied, there are new studies of it made in the 2020s, for medical imaging. If analog optical disc can be made, that is actually analog LP in optical form. That is the thing what analog enthusiasts have been looking for, good quality analog playback for analog audio. So not only medical imaging, analog audio, and perhaps analog films (35 mm / 70 mm film copies) can be stored in analog optical disc for archive duties. Optical analog audio disc would be suitable to replace vinyl LPs too. It requires that the music is recorded and mastered using pure analogue soundpath, if sound goes through A/D and D/A conversion it is not analog anymore. Also analog sound desks must be used, no digital manipulation of sound in any way.
High end LP layers have sometimes weight that is put to top of LP record, this additional weight helps to overcome jitter in turntable. If analog optical disc has jitter problems additional weight that is put on top of disc before disc is put to player can be used, like in high end turntables.
High Definition Vinyl is new high accuracy vinyl LP. It uses digital “mapping” of LP grooves. It should be analog in analog media, so special analog processor chip is needed that does this “mapping” of LP record grooves in analog way, so it is analog computer in chip. There are quite cheap offers to manufacture analog or mixed circuit ICs at low quantities (perhaps only few hundred units) and at cheap price. Also High Definition vinyl spaces LP grooves very efficiently, so that LP playing time is more than 30 minutes per side if needed. This increased playing time can be used to press 45 rpm and 78 rpm LPs. Double-LPs made of 78 rpm pressing can be made that contain one album, or even triple-LPs. LP sizes can also be slightly bigger than 12 inch / 30 cm standard, about 32 - 34,5 cm LP records fit in LP turntables, so that LPs don t touch turntable s dust cover.
Laser LP turntables have been made, LP grooves are read by laser system. Dust is problem, but perhaps LP discs can be shielded using old floppy disc type disc protection, large “floppy disc” contain vinyl LP, and this “floppy disc” goes inside record player. Another way is to use LP cleaning tonearms that some high end turntables had, they had one tonearm with cartridge with needle that went to LP grooves, and additional one or two “tonearms” that were used to cleaning static and dust from LP grooves while LP was in turntable. Laser turntables could use similar system also.
Also if analog optical disc needs protection from dust and damage, discs can be inside protective cover, Bluray standard accepted two covers for Bluray, types which were partially closed and types with completely closed disc cover, this Bluray cassette was put to Bluray player. Similar “cassette” optical disc can be used in analog optical disc system to protect from dust and scratches (digital optical discs use error correction). Noise reduction systems that were used in some vinyl LPs in 1980s can be perhaps used in analog optical disc also, or something similar dynamic range compression / expander system.
Also optical tape system can be used, like analog optical C-cassette.

If some really effective video codec is used, and it works in realtime, video processor must be really effective. Most powerful GPU has over 50 billion transistors and 5 petaflops of power. If video codec has really high pixel count and fast framerate, it is suitable for digital cinema, and it can construct moving images from sparse information (information must be sparse because this moving picture has such high pixel count and fast framerate that only sparse information for moving picture is possible to be send through internet or put to Blu ray disc). Then moving picture must be largely constructed inside video processor. If that video processor has 50 billion transistors and 5 petaflops of speed it can construct in realtime large amount of moving picture. Cost would be 1000+ dollars for only that video encoder- or decoder chip. And Bluray players would then be expensive and consume lots of electricity and need cooling like PCs. But then is possible really realistic (virtual reality) visual experience in 3D. So instead of increasing amount of data in moving picture file, that file would be unrealistically large to move through internet, needs lots of storage and does not fit in Blu ray disc, from smaller amount of “cue” information some massively effective signal processor can reconstruct moving picture. Two sided Blu ray disc has 256 GB capacity max. (2X128 GB), it is suitable for this kind of massive pixel count fast framerate video, perhaps long feature films need two two-sided discs of 256 GB each. And not only multilayer Blu ray, decoder video codec uses 50 billion transistor 5 petaflops IC chip that is designed just for this kind of video codec. Actually video codecs use integer not floating point so it is not measured in FLOPS. Older Blu ray formats can be decoded using other cheap IC chips in Blu ray player that has this megachip inside too.
Digital cinema needs many such megachips, for example 4-6 of them minimum to decode digital cinema video file in realtime or close to realtime, so cinemas need many thousand dollar investment so that they can show this digital video format. It is even possible that even their processor power is not fast enough to process cinema video in realtime, so if digital cinema file has fast moving picture that consumes lots of processing power, those points in moving picture must be decoded beforehand before digital film is shown in cinema, and those beforehand decoded scenes or part of them that are too fast to be processed realtime, go to buffer memory that store those moments until digital film file is shown in cinema. Same method can be used in Bluray disc also, if video has fast changing scene and fast framerate (lots of keyframes) in some fast moving scene, Bluray player whose video processor is too slow to process it realtime decodes those scenes before it begins to play Blu ray disc properly, and those pre-decoded scenes or part of them go to buffer memory until Blu ray movie is played to that point and both already decoded information in buffer memory and information that is processed in realtime join in video stream and fast scene is shown in full. “Buffer memory” here means just any memory that stores video information few hours. Normal video codecs are designed to work always in realtime, or at least they decode video in realtime in Blu ray players and in digital cinemas. But it is possible, because film/video has both slow and static scenes and fast moving scenes, that video codec is not working realtime in those fast situations, they must be partially decoded beforehand, because processor is no fast enough. So picture quality in fast moving scene is good and it has no motion blur, moving picture quality in fast moving scene is just as good as slow moving or static scene. Also video processor works closer to its maximum speed all time, so this way this (expensive) processor s capacity can be used fuller.
Semiconductor industry uses wafers from 1 inch (25,4 mm) to 12 inch (300 mm) sizes. Modern IC manufacturing is expensive, making IC factory costs billions of dollars.
What if instead of 12 inch wafer manufacturing machinery (optical litography etc. systems) are designed for 1 inch wafer, and this 1 inch IC chip is one wafer size chip. It has inbuild routing to bypass manufacturing defects in chip fabric. 1 inch wafer size chips are probably much cheaper to build than 12 inch large wafers, whose factory needs billions of dollars investment. So at much cheaper cost per factory can be build 7 nm or 5 nm chips for example, but in smaller volumes (litography machines need to be only for 1 inch diameter, not 12 inch). Also many chips can fit in 1 inch wafer too, not only in 8- or 12 inch wafers.
No 450 mm or 675 mm wafers are being made, and no factories (litography machines etc.) exists for them. Those big wafers are not perhaps suitable for making 7 nm or 5 nm chips, but there is market for much coarser IC chips that are made using 65 nm, 90 nm, 180 nm tech etc. Those bigger scale chips can be made using large wafers, not usual 300 mm or 200 mm. If it is too expensive to build litography machines for 7 nm 450 mm wafer, it is quite possible that 45 nm, 65 nm, 90 nm, 180 nm etc. litography machinery that uses 450 mm or 675 mm wafers can be made, and production of those chips is then very economical. Even micron-sized process (1000 nm) and larger is still used in semiconductor manufacturing, analog or mixed circuits or digital. Analog sound chips are 8 micron. So 450 mm or larger wafer can be used economically.
VSORA AD1028 is a DSP that is for autonomous cars and their visual observing system. It is a sort of video signal processor. It has petaflops of speed, and less than 35 W power consumption and 35 mm2 area. Compared to that largest GPU that has over 50 billion transistors and over 800 mm2 area, and 5 petaflops of speed. That VSORA design, or something similar can be used as basis of video decoder processor for Blu ray players and digital cinema processors. So 5 petaflops is then 175 W and about 170 mm2 area. But video coding uses integers, not floating point, integer is faster than floating point. It is cheaper than that GPU of 826 mm2 area.
Video coding then perhaps becomes sort of computer graphics in realtime, powerful video decoder processors are then like modern high-power GPUs, they make moving picture from compressed video information “cues”. But then really realistic 3D environment is possible.
One such video processor can be in each Blu ray player, and many (4-8 or more) is needed in digital cinema version.
Also not only binary, different number system can be used. Number bases like ternary (3), balanced ternary, zero displacement ternary, fibonacci ternary, 6, 9, 12, or 60 are possible number bases, not only binary. Other number base is Hamel base, also called simply vector basis? Can it be used in video coding? Number base/system that has some sort of Hamel base? Perhaps binary integer is not most economical way to store information in video coding when there are alternatives. Also infinity base number system (Eric James Parfitt). It has graphical marks, (lines, squares, perhaps triangles). If those marks and number system is used in some optical store system, like Blu ray disc, does it save space compared to binary dots used in optical discs? Old Laserdisc video used pit length encoding, not just binary spots. Can this pit length encoding save space compared to strictly binary encoding in optical disc?
There is Aleph numbers, p-adic numbers, bihereditary numbers, giant numbers (Paul Tarau) etc. From netpage math stackexchange com “Prove uncountability of reals in an infinite base number system (without diagonalization)”. Asymmetrical numeral system is used in data compression. Can any of those be used in very economical video compression?
About high quality analog audio: VHS-C and Video8/Hi8 formats had high quality audio, at the level of CD, but sound was analog not digital. VHS-C and Hi8 cameras are not made anymore, but VHS-C can be used in VHS player with adapter (no VHS players are made anymore) and Hi8 cassette can be played in Digital8 camera. There are plenty of VHS video players around and Digital8 camera can play Hi8 cassettes, so real high quality (CD quality) analog audio distribution is possible using VHS or VHS-C cassettes and Hi8 cassettes. If vinyl LP is not enough. High Definition Vinyl is one possibility, if it becomes reality. Those high definition vinyl records could use similar noise reduction system that East German LPs used (UC compander system), it did not affect sound quality of record player without decoder. If LP record is high definition vinyl made and also encoded with noise reduction system it would be really high quality analog audio. Nowdays vinyl LP is nowhere near CD quality, but those video cassettes have sound that is like from CD player, and high definition vinyl can be also, for example if it uses french “Trimicron” style extented playing grooves and 45 rpm or 78 rpm LP records. Also bigger than just 30 cm diameter LP is possible, slightly larger than 30 cm LPs can be made, or LPs are pressed in different sizes so that they fit inside different size dust covers of LP players. If three sizes are used, 32 cm, 34,5 cm and 38 cm for example, they fit inside different size dust covers. LP records are pressed in limited editions, from 100 copies or 250 copies etc. and those small pressing runs are normal, so even small pressing runs of LPs that are pressed less than 1000 copies can have three pressings that have three different sizes. Sound quality of 38 cm or 34,5 cm LP is much higher than normal 30 cm LP.
Also optical analog disc can be used in audio, 2019 - 2021 studies has been made that use OFDM compression and analog optical disc in optical data store format (medical imaging). Or using optical tape. Or magnetic analog IC semiconductor memory can store audio, like analog audio memory stick, if it is possible.

To make analog sound similar quality as CD, hifi videocassette is a solution. Smallest cassettes, Hi8 and VHS-C are not made anymore, but normal VHS cassettes are made in China. But no VHS video players are made anymore.
Another way to make magnetic tape back again: digital video. LTO tapes are used in computer industry, as archive data store. Newest LTO9 tape can hold 18 terabytes. Problem is that LTO is not mass manufactured media similar like hard drives or semiconductor memory, that are in every computer and in every data memory device, and hard drives and IC chip memory is made at millions of units each year, keeping price low.
What about making tape memory at same quantities? LTO9 has 18 terabytes magnetic tape, and about four times as much tape that is in VHS cassette. VHS cassette costs less than one dollar (factory order from China). Four times one dollar: 4 dollars. 18 terabytes of memory in LTO cassette: price 5-20 dollars when mass manufactured like VHS cassettes. So massive amount of memory available at minimal price. 18 terabytes of semiconductor IC memory is hideously expensive, and hard disc that has 18 terabytes too. So few dollars price of 18 terabytes is huge improvement in data memory price. Why those that manufacture LTO cassettes do not make them to public as consumer product mass memory, nowdays they are only available to big business firms. Read/write speed is slow, but so what, it is 18 terabyte memory at few dollar price. And read speed can become faster, future LTO has higher speed. Also cassette is about over 20 mm thick and it holds 0,5 inch tape, if tape thickness is 1 inch wide, cassette is not much bigger, perhaps 30 mm. Wider tape has 2 times fast read/write speed?
Where is LTO tape used? Not only PC memory store, but in consumer video like Blu ray disc nowdays. Two layer Blu ray has 50 gigabytes capacity, LTO tape 18 terabytes, or 1 inch cassette 36 terabytes. That is enough for really high quality video. LTO cassette can be made to version that has receiving reel inside cassette, like Betamax cassette, for home use.
Holographic video needs massive amount of data and pixels, real holographic video, although there are cheaper alternatives like light field photography/cinematography. But real holography is massively pixel/data intensive. LTO cassette can bring real holographic video to every home.
What about digital cinema? Perhaps holographic cinema needs one petabyte per feature film. Solution is enlarged LTO cassette, slightly larger than vinyl LP is (larger than 30 cm diameter) and 2 inch wide tape, then enough for petabyte in LTO tape. Every cinema has video player that can play this massive videocassette. Price, if compared to VHS cassette again, and its magnetic tape, is about 70 - 100 dollars per petabyte magnetic tape. When used tape can be wiped out and used again like normal videotape. 70 - 100 dollars for petabyte is nit much, this massive LTO cassette can be used in computer mass memory too, ultra cheap mass memory. There are enough movie theaters in the world so that this massive petabyte cassette can be manufactured at mass production, and it can be sold as mass memory for ordinary PC users too, petabyte at 100 dollars is so cheap that every PC owner can buy it around the world.
Optical disc is one option Blu ray disc enlarged to 40 inch disc (102 cm) and then made multiple disc optical hard drive, 32 discs in one hard drive, 600 terabytes, and this massive optical hard drive disc transported to movie theaters that have optical drive that plays it. But it is even bigger than enlarged LTO cassette. But that optical disc system is cheap too, about the same price, 70 - 100 dollar. Those discs can be wiped out and rewritten also.
Another option is semiconductor memory, cheapest and slowest IC memory costs slightly over 10 dollars per terabyte, or it was before global IC chip shortages, so petabyte is over 10 000 dollars in one “memory card”. This 10 000 dollar memory card can be transported to movie theater and back to film distribution company, wiped out and rewritten again, with new film.
Solutions for holographic moving picture perhaps: “Scientist discover the next generation of reservoir computing”, “Light computes any desired linear transform without a digital processor”, “Efficient algorithms for the accurate propagation extreme-resolution holograms”, “Cheap, color, holographic video: better holographic video displays”, “Quasi-noise free digital holography”, “Holography quantum leap could revolutionize imagery”.
And if digital cinema uses petabyte for holographic video memory, also processor that makes holographic moving picture must be efficient. Cerebras wafer scale processor has 2,6 trillion transistors, similar processor designed only for holographic video in digital cinemas can be made. There are enough movie theaters in the world so that this wafer-scale processor can be mass manufactured at reasonably cheap price and produced at large numbers.
About holography: “Digital holography compression”, “Using artificial intelligence to generate 3D holograms”, “Using AI to revolutionize real-time holography”, “Compression of digital holograms of three dimensional objects using nonuniform iterative and non ite”, Dynamic speckle holography, “Progressive hologram transmission using a view-dependent scalable compression scheme”, “Computational holographic bandwith compression”, “Single-shot holographic compression”, “Wavelet compression of off-axis digital holograms”, “Holographic video system using Fourier transform method”, “Lensless anamorphic Fourier transform hologram recorded”, Time stretch dispersive Fourier transform, sparse Fourier transform, Anamorphic stretch transform, Discrete anamorphic stretch transform DAST, “Bit allocation in the transform coding of hologram patterns” 1999, “Anamorphic white light Fourier processor with holographic lenses”, “A novel high efficiency holography image compression method” 2021.
There was studies of holographic optical disc, for storing binary data. What if instead of binary digital data those optical discs store optical holograms? For holographic moving picture for example. If optical disc is large enough, 40 inch (102 cm) it can store lots of information, and optical discs can be stacked like hard disc drive, if there is suitable optical reading mechanism like laser pickup. Optical discs are cheap, but how cheap or expensive is holographic disc I don t know. Also holographic optical tape can be made that store holographic information, like holographic moving picture, this is actually like 35 mm film reel or IMAX film reel, but instead of 2D or stereoscopic 3D it uses full 3D holographic film. There are simpler ways to make 3D “holograms” like light field photography/cinematography, and so called artificial holograms, but maybe “true” holography is the real deal.
Archival disc is Blu ray derivate optical disc format. Already 10 years ago was prototype 16 layer Blu ray disc. Archival disc with 16 layers has 500 - 600 gigabyte capacity per side, so about 1 terabyte in two sided disc. That makes sort of one petabyte optical drive possible, although it would be large. 65 cm (about 25 inch) disc platter is 30 terabytes then, and 33 of them in large optical hard drive is petabyte. Cost of Blu ray or DVD disc is only pennies/cents in factory order of large orders, so that optical hard drive with petabyte capacity is in few dozen dollar price range, discs only, not gigantic optical hard drive. But that “hard drive” can be based on consumer Blu ray player technology so not costing much, although it has big size. Platters of optical “hard drive” can be changed, unlike magnetic hard drive, even individual platters that are stacked upon each other. Lots of laser pickups are needed, 66 is minimum but more than one per platter size can be used to make data search faster. But those laser pickups are cheap, similar are used in Blu ray players. Optical disc is faster than magnetic tape, so it is one possibility for super cheap petabyte mass memory for home PCs, gigantic “LTO” tape cassette with petabyte capacity is over 30 cm diameter with 2 inch wide tape, but that petabyte “LTO” tape cassette costs about 100 dollars or less, perhaps. Both optical petabyte memory and petabyte magnetic tape memory can be used to store holographic movies that are distributed and sold to homes, like old videocassettes, but those petabyte data stores have huge size. But they are cheap way to store and distribute petabyte amount of information to every home. Normal LTO9 cassette hold 18 terabytes, or 36 if it uses 1 inch tape, and that LTO cassette can be turned to Betamax - looking type when receiving reel is inside cassette. Also optical disc can have 30 terabytes or so, but it is bigger than 12 cm Blu ray, or stacked like hard drive platters, or simply more optical discs sold in same package to consumers. Optical disc can be inside protective cartridge like DataPlay discs, so that more information fits to discs, and even stacked optical hard drive discs can be inside their own individual protective cartridges even when stacked to pile of discs inside “optical hard drive” and those cartridges individually changed if needed. Combination of semiconductor IC memory can be in optical disc cartridge and in magnetic tape memory cassette, so that memory is then hybrid semiconductor IC / optical or hybrid semiconductor IC / magnetic tape, but IC memory is more expensive than optical discs or magnetic tape so it is used not much as tape or optical disc space so that overall price of hybrid memory will be cheap.
KLT transform or similar transforms can be used to “matrixing” sound, has KLT or similar transforms any good in holography? KLT may need analog processing, either electric or optical analog processing.

If for example KLT transform is used in holography, perhaps processing must be analog, because KLT is difficult to make work in digital domain. Special IC chips that KLT often use analog processing not digital. But perhaps holograms can be processed in analog domain. Old analog TV sets had “digital” pixels, but their electronics was all analog. Making analog processing (analog optical processing through some optical system that makes holograms?) to make three dimensional moving picture, is perhaps possible, so that holographic system is something like 3D version of old analog 2D television.
KLT is used in sound processing to make additional channels between stereo pair channels, in multichannel speaker system. It is possible to encode to 2 channel stereo unlimited amount of channels in between. And KLT, among other things, makes this possible. Multichannels can be encoded in analog form, in analog signal of stereo pair, or digitally in digital stereo audio signal. I don t know how this helps in holography, in visual signals.
And there is multiple description coding, “Multiple description coding of digital holograms”.
And vector quantization, also in form of “extreme vector quantization” (additive quantization, AQ), and “additive powers of two quantization” APoT, and also “Quantization and greed are good: one bit phase retrieval”.
Old analog HD TV system MUSE used analog compression of TV signal, perhaps holographic signal can also be compressed using analog system. Analog compression/expander systems (noise reduction) has been used in analog audio for ages. There is quadrature amplitude modulation etc. systems in analog electronics. And polarization-division multiplexing etc.
Perhaps analog memory is needed to store holographic signal, digital systems need terabyte per second etc. to make moving holographic picture. In Japan has been recent studies made about analog optical disc memory (for medical imaging?). Semiconductor IC memory can also be analog, not digital.
Magneto-optical disc systems have been used for ages, and of course also magnetic tape can store analog information. Optical memory can also be in optical tape form. Folio Photonics. Optasys. New prototype optical disc can store 700 terabytes in CD sized disc.
“Computer-free all-optical reconstruction of holograms using diffractive networks”, “Spatial-spectral holographic real-time correlative optical processor”, “Holographic optics for a matched-filter optical processor” 1979, “Multiplying light could be key to ultra-powerful optical computers”, “Research team identifies second-harmonics generation interference in 2-D heterobilayers”, “Tunable third harmonic generation in graphene paves the way to high speed optical communications”, “Extraordinary strong nonlinear optical graphene-like material could renovate nonlinear photonics”.
Perhaps analog-digital hybrid holographic system can be made, if it is too difficult to make pure analog or digital holographic moving picture. Holographic moving picture information is compressed to digital memory, compressed digital information is expanded to analog holographic moving picture when needed. Or otherway around, holographic moving picture is stored in analog memory (film, optical disc/tape, magnetic memory, analog semiconductor IC memory, optical crystal memory), and it is expanded to digital moving picture when needed
There is also artificial holography- style systems like light field photography / cinematography and stereoscopic cinematography (using 3D information hologram is created). Those perhaps are simpler systems and do not need so awful lot of memory that real holograms need. If there is any noticeable difference in picture quality and illusion of 3D is the picture “real” hologram or artificial hologram. If there is no difference in moving picture quality, or real hologram can in fact be worser quality than artificial version of it, it is perhaps better to use those simpler methods. Although “true” hologram is the real deal anyway, but it might be technically too difficult in moving picture, in cinema or in home video. LTO data memory tapes have 18 terabytes capacity and it can be doubled if 1 inch tape is used, so “home video” using holograms is perhaps possible, and even larger data cassettes can be made if needed. 700 terabyte optical disc may be used too if it becomes reality. Those memory systems can be used as computer mass memory too, in home PCs for example. “Home video” can be some kind of TV display system, perhaps volumetric display so TV is then large box again like old TV sets with cathode ray tubes, or video projector system in home that makes moving 3D pictures. I don t know if it makes any sense to make giant volumetric display in movie theaters instead of silver screen, so instead of moviescreen moviegoers watch big volumetric display like giant TV set, but this TV has screen size of thousand inches perhaps.

The firm mentioned in previous post was “Optalysys”, not Optalys. This and other firms, like Lightmatter and Fathom Computing make optical processors. Mostly research of optical processors is about Artificial Intelligence, but why not use similar optical processors to make moving picture holograms?
Swinburne university has made 11 teraops optical processor. And “University of Sydney researches turn optical data into readable soundwaves”.
“On-chip programmable nonlinear optical signal processor and its applications”, “All-optical information-processing capacity of diffractive surfaces”, “Toward optical signal processing using photonic reservoir computing”, “Numerical optical processor concepts”, “Fourier optics and computer generated hologram”, “Machine learning methods for digital holography and diffractive optics”, “Fast method for calculating a curved hologram in a holographic display”, " Optical computing by a vector holographic memory system", “Computer generated holography for optical neural networks”, “Deep learning enables real-time 3D holograms on smartphone”, “Cylindrical computer-generated hologram for displaying 3D images”, “Modified signed-digit optical processor using computer generated holograms”, “Computer-generated-hologram-accelerated computing method based on mixed programming”, “Wafer-scale low-loss lithium niobate photonic integrated circuits”, CameraCubeChip, “Integrating optical devices of different materials onto single chip”, “Through-wafer optical interconnect for multi-wafer wafer-scale integrated architectures” 1986. If any of those helps to make holographic movie processor for holographic cinema system or holographic home entertainment system.
Nothing to do with digital cinema or holograms, but vinyl records: the High Definition Vinyl, it should improve old vinyl LP. In analog sound is possible using modern technology to encode unlimited amount of multi-channel audio in two channels, even using analog sound matrixing (the quality of channels decreases as number of channels increase). So it is possible to make multichannel surround sound vinyl LP that uses only analog encoding and decoding. Also was “holophonic” sound in early 1980s vinyl LPs that used, probably, analog HRTF decoding and electronics. So it is possible to make analog multi-channel vinyl LP, and also is possible to make analog vinyl LP that has “holophonic” sound, those were made in early 1980s already. Analog HRTF sound that is either for headphone listening or for listening through loudspeakers.
The problem of vinyl LP is that sound quality decreases when needle goes nearer the centre of the LP disc because LP has continuous playing speed of 33 1/3 rpm. Why not then make continuous variable speed LPs? So turntable then has not only usual 33 1/3 and 45 and perhaps 78 rpm but also continuous variable speed that starts from 33 1/3 rpm but becomes faster as needle comes nearer center of the LP disc. Playing time is shorter than usual LP but High Definition Vinyl has longer playing time than normal LPs and old french “Trimicro” LPs had long playing already time long time ago. And continuous variable LP turntables has been made earlier (DJ turntables). Vinyl LP pressings are small scale nowadays, often only few hundred copies are some LP titles printed. Even if there would be only few hundred hifi turntables in the world which have continuous variable speed that would make possible to press variable speed LPs. The variable speed makes posible that sound quality of LP is good through whole LP, not only in few tracks which are near edge of LP disc. Modern technology, electric motors, drive systems of record players, and microprocessor or microcontroller control system, makes possible that fluent continuous variable speed in LP player is possible. Only someone who builds LP turntables with continuous variable speed drive is needed. I don t know what changes LP pressing plants must have if any so that continuous variable speed LPs can be pressed, but High Definition Vinyl will change the way LPs are pressed anyway, so perhaps continuous variable LPs can be pressed in High Definition Vinyl. And also multichannel surround sound and “holophonic” LPs which are made using analog processing, not digital.
Also plastic quality of LP can be improved, “supervinyl” was used in 1970s, and now similar “SuperVinyl” is used, with perhaps different plastic formula. Those make LP records quieter. The TIM distortion, transient intermodulation distortion, or DIM distortion, dynamic intermodulation distortion (those two are same thing), can make sound worse. Although modern amplifiers are better than one made during 1970s, it is possible that distortion measurement standards do not measure accurately all distortions in sound. Tapio Koykka patented 1981 noise shaping circuit in amplifier that makes TIM distortion less if that is in the sound and also makes transients of sound cleaner and not muddled that some amplifiers do, so it restores the sound. That amplifier / transient noise shaper circuit is however not found in Google patents of Tapio Koykka. Another noise in LP record is low frequency rumble. One way to to get it quieter was Koykka s LP needle cartridge that used similar system than his “Ortoperspekta” sound system used, and this system made rumble of turntable quieter. In netpage radiohistoria fi SRHS forum 2019 is “Tapio Köykän äänirasiasta tietoa?” but it is in finnish language. And this turntable low frequency rumble cancellation system works only in his Ortoperspekta sound system, however no LPs using this system was never made. The problem with Ortoperspekta is that it seems to require specific microphone setup or recording technique, like Ambisonic, but this recording technique was never made that suits for Ortoperspektra. Koykka also made suggestion that Ortoperspektra could be used in FM radio transmission easily. “Super ortoperspekta” is however in development (K. Kuikka 2020). Koykka also made multi spark ignition for two stroke engines invention that made fuel consumption of two stroke engines smaller and similar system was also in some italian cars long time ago.
K. Kuikka has also made distortion measurement signal for amplifiers that should be better in some way than regular distortion measurement standards: netpage foorumi hifiharrastajat org “Luonnollinen mittasignaali” 2010, in finnish language only.

Not about digital cinema or holograms but vinyl LP players: if LP turntable has continuous variable speed it can maintain good sound quality even when needle comes nearer the LP center. But perhaps more than 78 rpm is not needed, so when needle starts playing LP from outer edge speed is 33 1/3 rpm and then playing speed increases as needle goes nearer to center, so that sound quality is the same as 33 1/3 rpm in every track, but when playing speed reaches 78 rpm it does not increase any more, because over 78 rpm speed in vinyl LP is perhaps too much, so when LP reaches 78 rpm it does not go faster from there, but stays at 78 rpm until the end of vinyl album. It is said that 45 rpm is much better sound quality than 33 1/3 rpm, so LP can start from 45 rpm and that sound quality is maintained when record player slowly accelerates to 78 rpm when needle comes nearer LP center, but when it reaches 78 rpm speed stays there and do not go any faster, and then plays at 78 rpm to end of vinyl record. So this is combination of continuous variable speed and regular LP continuous speed. Going over 78 rpm is too much for vinyl record, 78 rpm in any distance from record center is good sound quality enough. And also 45 rpm is good sound quality when needle starts playing from edge of vinyl LP record. Vinyl LP pressings can perhaps be made that from outer edge play 45 rpm and then maintain that sound quality by increasing playing speed to 78 rpm when needle comes closer to center but when 78 rpm is achieved playing speed becomes continuous 78 rpm. I don t know what this kind of variable / non variable speed vinyl LP requires from vinyl LP mastering and pressing machines. Making record player with continuous variable speed is perhaps not so difficult nowadays, microprocessors and electronic control of electric motors, turntable drive systems etc. can handle that, and for DJ use user-selectable variable speed turntables have been made long time ago.
About TIM / DIM distortion: Tapio Köykkä / Antero Syrjä has in “prh fi” netpages patent 64731 “Järjestelmä merkki-kohinasuhteen parantamiseksi informaation taltioimisessa ja toistossa / System för förbättrande av signal/brosförhållandet” 1981 / 1983. This is probably patent that has circuit that does TIM distortion noise shaping and audio clearing of transients. TIM distortion is not problem of high-end amplifiers anymore, but there are lots of cheap consumer electronics products whose amplifiers are not so good quality as high-end hifi, and in those cheap amplifier circuits TIM / DIM distortion may appear, and sound becomes muddled when transients are damped down if they are noisy. So perhaps in those cheap consumer products that have audio amplifiers TIM distortion noise shaping is needed. Patents in prh fi netpages are not free but price for pdf file is about 4 euros or so. I am not 100% sure that this patent is the TIM distortion noise shaping circuit but there is no other in prh fi pages that matches year 1981 when Koykka introduced TIM noise shaper patent.
The “Luonnollinen mittasignaali” by K. Kuikka which measures accurately distortions in sound is patented at Google patents FI20519B “Method and apparatus for generating a natural measurement signal” Kuikka.
More patents by Köykkä: patent pending 712878 “Monikipinäsytytys / Multipelgnisständning” 1971 / 1973, multiple spark system for two stroke engines that makes two stroke engines fuel efficient. Alfa Romeo cars had something similar system but it was for four stroke engines. And also by Köykkä patent pending 752996 “Kaksitahtimoottori / Två saktsmotor” two stroke engine 1975 / 1977, and perhaps Ortoperspekta sound system (it was something like Ambisonic reversed) patent is 35014 "Äänentoistojärjestelmä / Ljudåtergivingssystem 1962 / 1965. Those patents are at “prh fi/fi/ patentit” netpage, and about 4 euros is price of pdf patent file, if I understood the price right. In netpage “kolumbus fi /epap/ voimaradio” “Tapio M. Köykkä - strereotekniikan toisinajattelija” about Ortoperspekta and other things in finnish language and some schematics. That TIM distortion noise shaping circuit perhaps still might be some use in audio equipment. Koykka also made under name “Wattram super stereo” about 100 audio amplifiers that used this TIM noise shaping circuit from 1980 onwards, they are perhaps only audio electronic things in the world that have used TIM / DIM distortion noise shaping.
In the “prh fi patentit” pages is first “Palvelut ja tietokannat”, from there to “Maksuttomat tietokannat”, from there to “PatInfo” and there is Tapio Köykkä patents with Antero Syrjä.
No modern hifi amplifier needs TIM distortion noise shaping, but there is lots of low grade consumer audio devices around everywhere, in phones etc., if those have audio amplifiers that generate TIM / DIM distortion, this noise shaping / cancellation and transient cleaning circuit may be useful. Integrated circuit audio systems are being made but are they strictly digital, do their amplifiers generate TIM / DIM distortion etc. I don t know. If there is this sort of distortion noise shaping circuit may help.
And about better than CD audio: DVD and Blu ray discs have extremely small production costs, so they are no more expensive than CD discs, and there is “EcoDisc”, even cheaper and simpler manufacturing method. If better than 16 bit / 44 khz audio is needed, simple DVD video disc has that, up to 24 bit / 96 khz and 6 channels, or 8 channels with 16 bit / 48 khz. If DVD player is made not only normal video output connections but also with all functioning input / output connections that normal CD player has, headphone connection, sound volume control from front panel etc., that DVD player can be used to play high quality audio, like normal CD player, from normal video DVD disc. When audio is played TV picture shows (no TV is needed to be connected when listening just audio soundtrack) black picture or test picture with minimal bitrate. Multichannel / surround audio needs additional outputs. Blu ray disc has slightly better specs, 24 bit / 192 khz for 6 channels and 24 bit / 96 khz for 8 channels. Blu ray player can also be made to be CD / DVD / Blu ray player that has not only outputs of normal Blu ray player for video, also audio outputs like CD player, and surround sound multichannel outputs too, Blu ray video disc is high quality audio source. Blu ray has video bitrate that cannot be as minimal as DVD disc, but still much audio fits in Blu ray video disc together with video picture (video picture is not needed when music is played, so TV shows test picture or used for music videos, but TV can be closed when music is played).
There can be multi format discs that have CD- DVD- and Blu ray layers. There can be two layer or two sided disc with CD and DVD video, or two sided disc with one side hybrid CD and DVD video layer in two layers (One CD layer and one DVD layer) and then another side of disc has Blu ray layer. Now this disc can be played at CD-, DVD-, or Blu ray player, with high quality audio.
It could be possible that instead of different layers in same disc, CD-, DVD-; and Blu ray information is just in one layer disc, with different rings in one layer disc. If CD has 80 minute playing time, 40 minute CD has 50% disc space left for DVD or Blu ray information, or both. 48 minute CD has 40% disc space left etc. This remaining space that is left in the disc after CD information, can be two additional rings of of information, one of DVD and another of Blu ray. Those two other rings contain high quality audio, multichannel surround audio etc. Or just DVD information ring and no Blu Ray ring needed.
Really high quality would be 32 bit floating point in 96 khz / 192 khz studio quality sound file, in DVD-ROM tracks that PC DVD-ROM drive can use. However home audio systems all use 24 bit processing. Also BD-ROM disc with similar PC data file that has 32 bit floating point audio can be made, but there are no PC BD-ROM drives in PCs anymore.
If there is no space left after CD information that DVD information in multichannel audio or 24 bit rate don t fit in rest of the disc, disc must be two layer disc or two sided disc. Various discs that have both CD and DVD layers, or both DVD and Blu-ray layers, have been made. Simple solution is to put single layer CD and single layer DVD to two different sides of disc, or CD to other side and DVD and Blu ray information together in other side, in different layers or in different rings in one layer. It would be really multi-format audio disc that can contain music videos etc. information too. Only DVD and Blu ray players that have same functional outputs and control for audio that CD players have is needed. Normal DVD and Blu ray player outputs are designed for TV, not for audio like CD player, and they have no volume control in the front panel like CD players etc. audio control functions in front panel.
Digital distribution of WAV files consumes hard disc space, if 24 bit / 192 khz is used, and if instead of stereo multichannel surround is used data rate is enormous. Simply using ordinary DVD video disc or Blu ray video disc for audio distribution solves those problems. They can have CD information too so that CD player can play those discs. However CD has 16 bit / 44 khz stereo. Lossless compression like FLAC can be used, simpler versions like Slac and Sela audio compressions can be used. However only some Blu ray / DVD players can play FLAC and Slac and Sela are non-standard. PC DVD-ROM drives can play with computer FLAC and other lossless audio compression formats. Dolby TrueHD and DTS HD Master Audio are used in Blu ray players (not in all Blu ray players perhaps), those are lossless compression multichannel formats.

This is not about digital cinema or holograms but audio discs: why bother to buy CD, or multichannel surround audio disc that is normal video DVD or Blu ray video disc but used for high resolution music distribution (audio is together with video in disc data stream, video is not needed, only audio tracks) Music distribution through internet is used nowadays.
But hi-res multichannel surround sound can be very large amount of data. 192 khz / 24 bit in 8 channel multichannel format about 60 minutes is 17 gigabytes. Also stereo tracks are needed for people who have no surround sound system, additional 4 GB. Multichannel surround can have more channels than just 8, in home TV use is already version of Dolby Atmos and other sophisticated multichannel systems. That requires PC data file system, not regular Blu ray video, in BD-ROM disc. So total data amount needed for one music album might be 32 GB in hi-res audio surround sound with alternative stereo mix that don t need surround sound.
What is the cost of data transfer and then storing it to SSD drive or to USB stick? Data transfer of 32 GB through internet varies from country to another. From netpage visualcapitalist com “What does 1 GB of mobile data cost in every country?” And from netpage broadbandnow com “How much does data really cost an ISP?”. There is that 50 gigabytes cost 10 dollars in USA. So you buy 32 GB hi-res surround sound album from internet about 5-10 dollar price, but then you must pay about 7 dollars extra for transfer it to your PC through internet. And then you must store it in your SSD PC drive or use USB stick. Terabyte SSD cost about 100 dollars, when you load 30 hi-res multichannel music albums your PC hard drive is full, no room left for any other PC software but only 30 music albums, and you must buy another hard drive. One terabyte USB stick costs about 25 - 50 dollar, when you load 30 albums USB stick is full and you must buy another one. So this downloading surround sound hi-res albums through internet becomes hideously costly.
However, Blu ray disc costs pennies/cents to make. Compare that to cost to downloading same thing from internet and storing it to your computer or USB stick, and all data cost expenses that it will bring. Now using Blu ray video / BD-ROM discs for music distribution becomes cheap option instead of internet music distribution.
Another possibility is that this 32 GB music album is sold as a CD, in the CD package is regular CD but there also is 32 GB MicroSD memory card. Those 32 GB MicroSD cards are cheap when ordered directly from factory large mass order. MicroSD cards can be docked to USB stick using special adapter. So MicroSD card can be put to USB stick. Only this memory card/USB adapter music listener needs, then he can listen 32 GB multichannel surround sound hi-res album, or simply listen that album as stereo in normal stereo system.
Instead of normal surround sound there is possible “audio holograms” like higher order Ambisonic, reverse version of Ambisonic: Ortoperspekta, “vector base amplitude panning” VBAP, “distance-based amplitude panning” DBAP, wave field synthesis, phased array acoustics. Wave field synthesis is complete audio hologram, it needs lots of channels, so high data rate. Electrostatic loudspeaker with large number of sound “cells” (individual electrostatic speaker units in the same frame) may be cost effective way to bring wave field synthesis in home audio systems. It needs lots of channels so lots of data is needed to store. Or use VBAP, DBAP, or other technique. “Sparse, 1-optimal multi-loudspeaker panning”. For example high quality wave field synthesis could be transferred through internet, but it will be costly. So normal optical disc like Blu ray is suitable for those high data amount music distribution jobs. Or simply put memory card inside CD case and then selling CD and memory card together, CD disc plays in CD players and memory card has hi-res multichannel audio and perhaps hi-res stereo mix too.
There is patent by Clinton Hartmann “Multiple pulses per group keying”, it is about radio frequency communication, keying system that compress 15 bits to 1 bit. Can similar systems be used in holography? If holography and radio frequency keying has anything in common. Audio holography of sound or visual holography of moving picture or still picture.
For audio is lossless compression methods, so then about 32 GB lossless hi-res multichannel music album is 16 GB when compressed. It means that 60 such albums fit in terabyte hard drive or in terabyte USB memory stick. But just only transferring those albums through internet to home PC costs about 200 dollars, much more than hard drive or memory stick, if terabyte SSD price is about 100 dollars and terabyte memory stick 25-50 dollars. However if when that album is sold as CD, it includes in CD case not only album in CD form, but also 16 GB MicroSD card, now similar lossless compressed multichannel hi-res album is included with CD, and large order of 16 GB MicroSD cards from factory is cheap per one memory card. Music albums are sold thousands of units, sometimes millions. Another option is to use Blu ray video disc to store multichannel hi-res music album. Large factory order of Blu ray discs makes price very low per one Blu ray disc.
For encoding is “finite state entropy” “asymmetrical numeral system”, but there seems not to be audio codec that uses it. One in development: “Audio lossless compression using an integer discrete flow model on waveglow and an asymmetric numeral systems”. It uses neural network and entropy coding. Earlier was “Lossless Audio LA” audio lossless coding (2004), that had neural network style system and entropy coding also. “Breaking the bandwith barrier: geometrical adaptive entropy estimation”.
Asymmetric numeral systems can be used to encode logarithmic values, like logarithmic dynamic range of picture or logarithmic encoding in moving picture in digital cinema or in audio sound logarithmic encoding, using fractional values, but that needs some kind of analog processor, not digital, in the first place when digital (moving) picture or sound is encoded in fractional values to some number system that is not integer, for example balanced ternary tau if delta encoding or ADPCM style system is used, then when transformed to bits ternary tau values stored, and during playback bits that store balanced ternary tau numbers are transformed back to non-integer values in some analog video or audio processor. Any non-integer / fractional number system can be used, possibilities are almost endless, or zero displacement ternary, ternary fibonacci-, bihereditary numbers, giant numbers (Paul Tarau) p-adic numbers etc. Holographic system perhaps can use fractional values and analog processing. Samsung has made holographic TV prototype but it uses simple system for holography.
Another that can be used to picture or sound compression is vector quantization / compression, extreme vector compression is “additive quantization” AQ. Earlier was TwinVQ audio codec that used vectors. Perhaps AQ can be used in picture or sound compression, lossy or lossless.
Another compression is MQA, Master Quality Authenticated. It is with FLAC, “inside” it, like old Sony Superbit CDs had inside 16 bit CD audio. But it would be better to be “outside” of that audio codec not “inside” it, so that it won t not mess with FLAC or other codecs, and then it would not make FLAC file worse, and full potential of MQA could be used. Humans don t usually hear over 16 khz, so there can be one form of MQA that compress from 48 khz sampling rate up to 384 khz if needed, and another MQA that compress from 32 - 48 khz sample rate range in 24 bit audio or 38 - 48 khz range in 16 bit audio, over 16 khz is “ultrasound” to most people. So if 0 -16 khz hearing range is lossless audio compressed and 16 - 24 khz using MQA or some other method in 24 bit / 48 khz sound file only very few people notices difference, or not notice anything different from full 24 bit / 48 khz sound without MQA. Both this 32 khz to 48 khz sampling MQA and MQA from up to 384 khz if there is 384 khz sound file can be used, so then 24 bit / 384 khz sound file is very small when compressed. Another option is to use 18 khz (36 khz sampling rate) as starting point.
There are methods how to use “high frequency replication / reproduction” in audio compression. Sub band replication is used in AAC codec, many theoretical models use similar, “High frequency residue replication for audio”, “Spectral band replication and high frequency reconstruction audio coding methods”, “High frequency replication utilizing wave and noise information”, “Methods for improving high frequency reconstruction”. “Method for high frequency band replication, coder and decoder thereof”.
Another case is when signal has no high frequency components what to encode, 16 bit 44 khz sampled signal has 22 khz upper limit. There are DACs that upsample 16 bit 44 khz signal so that filters can produce better audio. “Bandwith extension” (BWE) is method how signal can have high frequency restored even without knowledge of what is in those high frequencies. “Adaptive bandwith extension and apparatus for the same” 2015. “A new source-filter model audio bandwith extension using high frequency perception”. Banwith extension can be used to reconstruct higher frequencies from 16 bit 44 khz sampled signal, like upsampling, frequencies can be 88 khz or 176 khz. So now standard 16 bit 44 khz signal is not only upsampled, it becomes “virtual 176 khz signal”, and this 176 khz signal goes to filter and is then transformed to analog sound signal that people hear. So even without information what 44 khz - 176 khz frequency information is, it can be artificially created, and this signal has perhaps better similarity to real 176 khz signal quality than just upsampled 44 khz to 176 khz. So virtual 176 khz signal can be made for high end hifi audio systems from 44 khz sound.

This (like previous post in this message chain) is not so much about digital cinema or holograms but audio, in this case analog audio. There are record players with laser pickups. Problem is that they scan all dust and dirt in the vinyl grooves together with sound, making sound not so good. One solution is that there is small brush in front of lasers in the pickup, this small brush that is fixed to pickup clears grooves just before lasers. Small vacuum cleaners are sold to clean vinyl LPs before playing. Another way is that there is small nozzle of vacuum cleaner inside laser pickup, just in front of lasers, and this vacuum cleaner nozzle clears vinyl grooves just before lasers. There are record player tonearms with air bearing, tonearm floats in air cushion, pump and tubes are needed in this system together with record player. Tonearm air bearing and small vacuum cleaner nozzle in the pickup can be combined, small miniature vacuum cleaner nozzle and air bearing use same air pump. Cost of that vacuum cleaner nozzle is not so much extra if compared to just plain air bearing tonearm. Those two methods, either brush or vacuum cleaner nozzle fixed in the tonearm pickup can be used in ordinary LP record players also.
Another way to use laser pickup in LP player is that there is no LP record at all, only 12 inch / 30 cm round holographic picture in the turntable. This round 12 inch picture has 3D holographic picture of the soundwaves that are made to three dimensional form, in the style of LP grooves, laser pickup reads this information and makes sound like normal LP record would be in the turntable. Problem is that holographic pictures can not be copied, (laser light holography), so this 3D model made from analog soundwaves and carved in plastic etc. material, and then photographed with laser holography, every time another 12 inch round hologram is made holographic picture must be taken again, but this can be quite fast and mass manufacturing of these holograms is possible. Only flexible 12 inch round hologram is needed instead of real LP record, Hologram is light and flexible and can be send through post etc. in envelope or packed in soft plastic sleeve in the record shop, it is light and thin. Hologram can be slightly smaller than 30 cm / 12 inch, perhaps 28-29 cm / 11 inch, because in LP record is blank space for needle in the beginning of record, that is not needed in hologram, or not so large section, so “holographic LP” can be smaller than normal LP. But is large hologram cheaper or more expensive than vinyl LP record? Mass manufactured both, in thousands of copies (although holograms are not copies, each is individual hologram photograph from three dimensional soundwave model that is arranged to form like LP groove).
From just making holograms of LP grooves to real holographic audio memory: Holographic versatile disc. It was intended to be computer mass memory but was not effective enough. But as analog audio memory HVD can be used perhaps. It would be like analog CD, but if possible even higher sound quality than CD, from analog master tapes, storing analog information (sound) in holographic memory, and perhaps even multichannel format, perhaps dozens of channels, lossless. Analog dynamic range compression can be used, if it makes sound better, similar that were used in magnetic tape or some vinyl LP s and Laserdisc. Same miniature brush system that would be used in laser pickup LP s can be used in HVD analog disc, but now brush is only few micron wide, so it is really small. there is then physical contact with optical disc (disc wear) but not much. Also miniature vacuum cleaner can be used. Or simply HVD disc is inside protective cassette, like early Bluray discs.
George Mann in 1974 invented analog laser pickup optical disc, but nobody noticed it. 12 inch disc was used but it is too large for special optical disc for laser scanned analog audio, Laserdisc used 12 inch but it was video system with 3 megahertz bandwith, audio needs only 20 kilohertz. This large disc was perhaps because dirt and dust is not so bad problem if “grooves” or lines of analog audio read by laser are large. Perhaps laser pickup of LP record player can read George Mann s analog optical discs too.

But analog audio can also be in other type of optical disc or in magnetic tape. Magnetic tape for analog audio can be either in VHS cassette or LTO Ultrium cassette. No VHS video players are made anymore so no new VHS Hifi sound machines are made. But what if VHS cassette is used like C-cassette, using normal analog magnetic tape recording and playback, not spinning drum like in VHS video player? VHS cassette has 430 m maximum tape length, C-cassette has 86 m in 60 minute cassette, and C-cassette has only 3,8 mm tape thickness, when VHS cassette has 12,7 mm. VHS tape is also thicker than usual C-cassette tape. So VHS used like ordinary C-cassette as analog audio recording and playback has much higher quality than C-cassette.
But LTO cassette is even better, it has 1035 m length tape, and it can be used as digital data storage too, 18 terabytes in mass memory. So each home PC can have LTO drive that can be used either as digital mass memory with 18 Tb capacity, and as analog audio source with perhaps better quality than CD. Also analog multichannel audio in separate tracks can be in VHS or LTO cassette. 8,9 micron LTO tape is 605 m long if compared to 1035 m 5,2 micron tape, this tape is thin but tape speed would be 7 times faster than C-cassette, and tape is half inch / 12,7 mm wide so sound quality is really good. Tape speed is almost like studio quality tape (8X C-cassette speed in studio recording tapes). This is for 60 minutes of music in LTO cassette with 8,9 micron tape. Also lower tape speeds and thicker tapes can be used in analog audio LTO cassettes. So LTO cassette would be ideal solution for both cheap mass memory for PCs, 18 terabytes in cassette that is not much more expensive than VHS cassette, price is few dollars when mass manufactured millions of LTO cassettes for home PCs around the world, and at the same time LTO cassette can be used as real high quality analog audio tape. Tapes inside LTO cassette must perhaps be different for analog audio and digital memory. In analog audio LTO cassette can be digital guide track in otherwise analog tape, digital guide track has time stamps for accurate playback speed synchronization and time information that is shown in player display. LTO drive for home PC has separate systems for digital LTO mass memory and analog audio recording and playback. Also real super Hifi LTO cassette decks can be made for audio playback and recording, that can be used as PC mass memory too. Almost studio quality multitrack recording and playback of audio is then available in analog form to everybody. Nowdays if someone wants to record using analog sound he/she must find first multitrack analog recorder, whose manufacturing ended long ago, only 2-track recorders are made nowdays, and those multitrack recorders, if someone happens to find them, are already used during 40 years and more so they are both worn out and expensive to buy. Some cost tens of dozens of dollars or so. So LTO tape drive in every PC solves two problems ate once, cheap computer mass memory, 18 terabytes at few dollar or few dozen dollar price, and cheap analog sound playback and recording for everybody (if they need it). Also LTO tape drives without analog audio section can be made, so LTO used only as mass memory.
Magnetic tape development has been mainly in LTO tapes, making tape formulas etc. that are effective, so making LTO tape as the new analog tape format is logical. Modern technology can make high quality analog magnetic tapes if needed, but these are not perhaps manufactured , 24 track studio recording tapes are “old tech” tape technology made like they have been made in the 1970s / 1980s.
Analog optical memory disc can use multilevel recording, meaning that recorded track varies in brightness, it is sort of FM recording in optical track where brightness means signal level, in optical soundtrack of films it is AM modulation, where width of optical track is signal level. Not only multilevel recording of brightness in track that satys in constant width but its brightness changes, also colors can be used in anaog optical memory. Two lasers that have different wavelengths form two-colour system. There are two-colour systems invented, not three colours like RGB. Two-colour system can use two wavelengths (two colours) and still have adequate color palette. Combining both brightness and different colors of two-colour color palette high amount of information can be encoded in analog optical disc. Some two-color systems offer almost as much colors/hues as three-color systems. Optical disc then not only uses black and white dots but variable length grooves or continuous groove which has variable brightness and variable colors also.
I netpage diy-audio - Why doesn t someone make a modern analog optical disc format for audio? is many ideas for analog optical discs.
There is that Laserdisc had PWM modulation, and there is Class D audio amplifiers that use PWM, so simply putting integrated chip Classs D amplifier inside CD or DVD disc player, removing digital circuits, and then using CD-r or DVD-r disc, Class D amplifier chip can encode or decode analog audio straight to CD-r or DVD-r disc. This is the simplest signal path possible.
Why does not someone in Instructables or Hackaday etc. netpages make this? It seems so easy thing to do, much easier than other diy electronic things in those netpages. Class D amplifier signal straight recorded in CD-r or DVD-r disc, analog PWM signal. If old Bluray player mechanics is used in disc player that had disc inside protective cassette, or old car CD players that too had disc inside protective cassette, no worry of dust. Digital guide signal can be used to speed synchronization perhaps, or pilot signal, or if protective cassette is not used, weight clamp like in high end LP players that makes speed smooth and less jitter.
Also that if analog signal is FM modulation (PWM modulation is version of FM modulation), then pilot signal can be recorded with audio signal, and this pilot signal detects timebase errors, so it is a form of analog error correction. Also analog delay lines can be used if error correction is used. Disc can be two-sided, in other side is digital CD and another side is analog side. Both sides are played at same time, there are two laser pickups. When player notices that audio information in analog side does not match digital side, it replaces damaged part in signal line taking digital audio and puts it through DAC so it becomes analog audio, and so replaces parts that have dirt or dust in analog side that spoil the signal, those small segments of originally digital audio can patch up mistakes in analog audio side. This is error correction too.
Magneto-optical disc is one option for analog audio. Perhaps factories that make roll printed electronics can make roll printed analog magneto-optical blank discs, without analog information so discs are blank. Or at the same time analog audio is put to them. Magneto-optical analog disc player can record and play analog magneto-optical discs then.
“Optical disc writing strategy for analog signal recording”, “Analog recording techniques available to optical disc”. There is also analog error correction codes invented, not just digital, and analog error correcting methods. Earlier in high end LP players had analog noise cancelling systems that tried to remove cracks and pops in vinyl LP sound.

Multilevel encoding is proposed for optical disc, in digital form, when brightness of spot in the surface of optical disc is divided to for example 8 levels. But if multilevel is in analog form, it has no quantization steps. If instead of typical 35 mm film optical soundtrack which widens soundtrack (amplitude modulation) FM modulation is used, and continuous optical track is used instead of pits, perhaps although optical rack becomes brighter or dimmer its width does not change, or at least does not change as much as in optical 35 mm soundtrack. Now this narrow track can be used to information, for example analog audio or even analog video, old Laserdisc video has 30 cm diameter two sided disc, but according to “Domesday project” laserdisc has 180 gigabytes capacity if analog raw data is transferred to binary bits, much more than 25 gigabytes in one sided one layer Bluray. And laserdisc is early 1970s analog technology.
If narrow brightness changing analog optical track can be done, perhaps colours too can be put to optical track. Two lasers with different wavelengths can use two-color coordinate system, and three lasers RGB or other color system. Those two or three lasers go through same optical path if possible, so single set of lenses like in normal laser pickup is used. Analog information does not need quantization steps. Either just brightness multilevel system can be used, or color multilevel encoding alone, or both together. In data matrix codes (QR codes etc.) color encoding is sometimes used.
Perhaps obsolete media like Laserdisc discs, if there is market for them, can be manufactured using printed electronics, inkjet printing or roll to roll printing, just blank discs without pits, information can be encoded using writable Laserdisc players. Manufacturing of Minidisc players has just been stopped, but there is magneto-optical disc manufacturing still somewhere perhaps, Minidisc and UDO discs too. Analog magneto-optical disc can perhaps be made, if magneto-optical has higher data density than just optical. Magnetic optical disk or diskette or floppy disc can perhaps be made also that is analog and contain music, 1950s Timex or some other manufacturer had 12 inch record player that was playing LPs and magnetic 12 inch disks too, when phono cartridge was changed, this player was not dictating machine like usual magnetic disc player from 1950s. CED / Selectavision and Video High Density were capacitance based systems. VHD had better quality than Laserdisc video and VHD has been compared to DVD, but it was analog video so not compressed. So uncompressed analog video in 25 cm disc in early 1980s technology had as good picture quality as DVD digital video which is compressed. DVD compression compresses video to about 30 - 125 times so VHD analog video stream has 30-125 times more information. Analog HDTV system MUSE was used in Laserdisc. In europe was analog HDTV, HD-MAC with its “pre bandwith reduction encoding”. Analog quadrature amplitude modulation was used in PAL and NTSC TV, to reduce bandwith. Analog audio can be compressed using dynamic range compression like in magnetic tape, but perhaps other analog compression methods can also be used with analog sound. KLT transform in analog domain can be used to make multichannel compressed audio.
“Analog signal compression and multiplexing techniques for healthcare internet of things”.
“Optical disc reader for reading multiple levels of pits on an optical disc” 1998 Calimetrics.
Googling “patent optical disc FM encoding” brings many interesting patents. Like Patent 4736258 “High density storage of information on a compact disc” Lowell A. Noble 1986, CN 1138734A “Optical disc system” 1996 / 1998, 20070030786 “Method of storing RLL encoded information to an optical disc” 2007, there is MAMMOS (magnetic amplifying magneto-optical disc system) and super-RENS (super-resolution near-field structure). US 4928187A "Method and apparatus for encoding and decoding binary data 1987 Theodore D. Rees (also works with analog data). EP0840309B1 "Optical disc system having… " 1995.

In patent US4928187A “Method and apparatus for encoding and decoding binary data” 1987 Theodore D, Rees, mentioned in previous post, and that it works in analog data too, but I don t know if it works with PWM or FM signals which can be analog.
But if optical disc has analog signal, it is possible that this analog signal uses both wide and length of laser pits, so it is uses both variable length of the pulse like Laserdisc to encode information but also at the same time uses optical track widening / brightness encoding like 35 mm film optical soundtrack. So it is kind of “2D code” in optical disc. This is perhaps already patented system (but not in use anywhere). Also has been patented different systems of analog optical disc where different shapes of pit is used to encode information, for example instead of Laserdisc pits that vary only in length, pit can have 9 different shapes, not just straight line, so it is basically 2D code in optical disc. But if optical disc uses both widening like 35 mm soundtrack and also variable length pulse, analog optical disc has high bandwidth. If now also colors are added to to this system, two or three lasers that use two / three different wavelengths, now the bandwidth of signal is even larger. So it is suitable for analog HDTV system. Analog HDTV had analog compression, MUSE and HD-MAC, but it is not compressed like digital video, digital video has average framerate of only 2 to 0,5 frames per second, when analog HDTV, although it is somewhat compressed, has same framerate like normal TV transmission, so framerate is not compressed. So no freezed background and other artifacts like digital video compression has in picture. 1K analog HDTV was already in 1980s / early 1990s. Perhaps 2K analog HDTV can be made too, perhaps line accuracy is not real 2K, like VHS cassette had not line accuracy of PAL or NTSC TV picture, so perhaps 2K analog video picture is “soft”, but at least framerate is normal and not just 2 - 0,5 frames per second. Modern video codecs can compress video to just one 1000th of original, so analog 2K video has almost 1000 times more information in moving picture than digital picture has. Cinema theatres that show films in big screen, are suitable for this analog revival, because big screen reveals video compression more than small TV screen.
How to distribute analog video? LTO Ultrium tape can perhaps be used as analog videotape. It can also be used as analog multichannel music distribution. Also LTO cassette can be bigger than just 10 cm, if music distribution has CDs, and CD case has 142 mm width, but digipak cases of 150 X 150 mm has been used, and even larger digipak CD cases. So LTO tape can be in 152 X 160 mm cassette for example, it has width that suits in CD bins of shops and height that is 1/3 higher than normal CD case (which is 127-128 mm). LTO cassette can now hold 2,3 times more tape than normal LTO tape that has only 10 cm size.
Also analog memory card can be used, memory card can be much bigger than normal SD card. Floating gate MOSFETs, or whatever, have been used in a analog memory, but this memory fades away eventually. There is contradicting information what is the time that this floating gate / whatever can hold information before audio / video information is in too bad condition. Some say days, some say weeks, some say months, and some that this analog memory can hold information in suitable condition over a year, or even several years. But this analog memory type, if it is cheap enough, can be used to analog audio / video distribution. In cinema films change every few months, so if analog memory card video becomes bad quality after that time it is not a problem. C-cassette has been used in music distribution for ages, and they become bad too after few years if not properly cared. If analog audio and video memory cards when they become bad quality, are send back to publisher, and at few bucks price this analog memory card is reloaded again and sent back to owner, now owner has again perhaps several years of time to watch / listen analog audio and video.
There also is modern analog IC memory types that can hold information almost endlessly, and those are in mass production because they are the basis of modern digital IC memory (3D memory cube and others). But also analog memory IC based in same principles can be made.
Analog error correction can be used in analog optical disc and memory card. There even is analog versions of Reed-Solomon error correction codes, perhaps to be used with PWM and FM analog signal.
DataPlay was small digital disc inside protective cassette, it had no error correction so disc was very small. Perhaps is possible to make analog Dataplay disc, analog disc without error correction (error correction is possible in analog but not so easy like in digital domain). Magneto-optical disc can be used also. Larger disc than Dataplay can be analog, perhaps 60-64mm or 80mm diameter inside protective cassette, or 120mm disc inside protective cassette. Or analog magnetic floppy disc like 1980s, but not computer mass memory but analog music distribution and perhaps video.

This is about holography: recent improvements in holography are Samsung s holographic TV and “tensor holography”. Holographic pictures can also be copied, so in theory it is possible to make 35 mm or 70 mm film holographic moving picture, using something which is like traditional film camera. Earlier in 1969 was “Holotape”, sort of holographic video that can be copied, in prototype form. It used something like stamping process, not film, to copy holograms.
But holographic moving picture must be filmed with laser light. So films must be shoot in studio, in laser light. Even outdoor scenes can be filmed in studio if budget is big enough to build outdoor sets inside the studio and studio is large enough.
But there are scenes that simply cannot be build as set in the studio, they must be filmed at outdoors. Solution is that those scenes are filmed with “light field” film camera or 3D stereoscopic film camera. Both “light field” and stereoscopic cameras make three dimensional picture. Those stereoscopic 3D or light field moving pictures in a film reel or if digital camera is used they are in digital form only, are converted to artificial holograms using tensor holography, and then those artificial moving picture holograms are copied in film reel, and those artificial holographic scenes filmed at outdoors can now be in some holographic movie that also has “real” moving holographic picture that are filmed indoors with laser light. I don t know what other challenges there are for making holographic moving picture.
But perhaps not even laser light is not needed to make holographic picture, “Full color natural light holographic camera” 2013, “What do butterflies teach: cheap holograms without laser”.
And lightning of color holographic picture is nowdays possible to using white light source, so any lamp will do, or LED- or halogen lamp.
So perhaps making moving holographic films in film reels of 35 mm or 70 mm or film in IMAX camera film is possible, and those holographic films can be shown in cinemas. Perhaps film projector needs that LED- or halogen lamp etc. and other modifications, or completely new film projector is needed, but making holographic moving pictures should be possible. Film emulsions must be special in holographic film, but perhaps that is the only thing that is changed in film reels of 35 mm or 70 mm if holographic moving pictures are filmed. I don t know which kind of film camera is needed for holographic moving picture, or can just any ordinary film camera be used.

About holography: To make color hologram then three lasers are needed, or two if two color coordinate system is used to make color picture. If holographic moving picture is to be filmed, then the scene must be lighted with lasers. When outdoor scenes are filmed (that don t fit inside studio set) just any stereoscopic or light field cinematography will do, and then stereoscopic/3D picture is transformed to holographic moving picture digitally by tensor holography or other method, frame by frame, like computer animated pictures are made frame by frame, and then digital holographic moving picture is put to 35 mm or 70 mm film.
Film camera that can capture laser light with colors can perhaps be like old three-strip Technicolor camera, three strips of film for three (laser) colors. Perhaps old Technicolor cameras can me modified for this? Or framerate is 72 fps or 48 fps in 35 mm or 65 mm film camera and this 72 fps is divided between three colors and 48 fps between two. So result is 72 fps or 48 fps fast framerate (no motion blur) and holographic moving picture.
The flicker rate in filming must be fast enough so that it is not annoying. So camera shutter is fast enough that it enables two or three colors to be filmed in in sequence without notable flickering. Laser colors change during filming of moving picture, because only one color can be filmed at the same time, flicker rate must be high rate (camera shutter rate) so that this rapidly changing two or three colors are not annoying to film crew and actors. Rapidly switching color lasers fast between two or three colors can perhaps make fast enough changing of two or three colors so that it is not annoying to film crew.
The film projector that can show holographic moving picture, what it would be? Film instead of digital camera / projector is perhaps better to film and then project in cinemas holographic moving pictures, digital holography requires terabytes / second data speed. The projector perhaps also can be three-strip like Technicolor camera, and then holographic moving picture is both filmed and shown in movie theaters with three-strip film (three colors separated). Another option is over-under splitting of picture frame that was used in 3D stereoscopic films, but instead of left-right picture over-under split film frame is two colors of two-color coordinate system and film is filmed with two laser lighting (two colors).

If there is a problem that when holographic film is copied, result is mirror picture, that is not a problem. If holographic film copy is mirror picture, meaning left becomes right, letters and numbers turn around etc. mirror picture effects, that is not a problem. Instead of trying to turn picture to be normal again without mirror effect, if that makes holographic film copying complex and complicated, simply sets and props can be build to be mirror image, anything that has text and numbers, like clocks in the wall, are in film studio set mirror image. Then in holographic film they are in right way. Only effect of mirror image is then that almost all actors are then suddenly left-handed in picture. Simply taking picture of text or numbers that are in the film set and which are filmed, then in computer (PC) turned digitally to mirror image, mirror image printed in paper and then glued in things that have text or numbers in the film set, like clocks in the wall etc. Now holographic film can be pictured and everything except actor s hands are in right way when holographic picture is copied. If props are three-dimensional and they have something in the one side only, film props must be made to be mirror image. For example in film “Great war” for some reason mirror image is used in many scenes, making rifle bolts in some scenes being in the left and in some scenes in the right side of rifle. To avoid this kind of mistakes if holographic film is made, prop rifles with bolts in mirror image side must be made. If cars are needed then british cars with stearing wheel other side than in other countries can be used, and if holographic film is made in England cars from continental europe can be used etc. If outdoor scenes are filmed with stereoscopic / light field camera in and then digitally turned to holograms, it is simple task to turn picture to mirror image digitally.
If not three-strip or over-under film is used in film projectors, film must perhaps be large size, like 70 mm or even IMAX size film with big frames, but this IMAX film is perhaps not normal “fisheye” wide size but normal cinema screen size, so then IMAX film is not wide screen but narrow screen wide, this if holographic moving picture quality does not allow larger screen size, because film picture quality must be good enough, and holographic moving picture needs good film emulsion quality and when it is shown in big wide angle screen or giant normal IMAX screen picture quality is perhaps too bad, so smaller screen / projection size must be used although film projector uses IMAX film. Perhaps even larger large frame film sizes must be used in holographic moving picture, it depends on film emulsion quality, how good it is capturing holographic moving picture in 24 fps, 48 fps or 72 fps. Lighting of film projector can be lasers perhaps in two- or three-strip film, or halogen or LED lamp, and in large size 65 mm or IMAX picture where colors are together in one film frame, LED or halogen lamp.