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Taoism and its similarities to world religions

How taoism borrowed from christianity is well known, eschatology and messianism, how eschatology of taoism resembles that of book of Revelation, and messiah called Li Hong. Li means religious sacrifice and Hong is great, vast. So this messiah is doing “great self-sacrifice”? There is also trinity in taoism, that may be influenced by buddhist triad. Also some rituals may be something in common with christianity, sacrificing of wine in the temple etc. In first taoism had no eschatology or messianism, like buddhism had no eschalotogy and messianism, before both borrowed them from christianity.
But how about similarities between islam and taoism? Concerning persons of Zhang Daoling and his grandson Zhang Lu, and Mohammed and his grandson Ali. Those “celestial masters” (master/ali) were not only religious leaders, they were military leaders also, like caliphs were, and under Zhang Lu who was great military commander and religious leader taoism conquered lands in China. There were four principal celestial masters before taoism had time of disarray, like islam had four principal caliphs before it went “wrong guided”. The fourth celestial master was son of Zhang Lu, Zhang Fu, but what happened to taoism and to him is not well known when taoism went to “dark ages” of few hundred years then on and Zhang Fu does not even appear in official list of celestial masters, which catches up history from about 600 AD onward so there is about 400 year gap in history of celestial masters although their names are known.
Zhang Daoling, who is pictured riding a tiger (Mohammed ride a Buraq), meditated and practiced religious rites in the mountain of Heming many years when “supreme venerable sovereign” god Taishang Laojun appeared to him, revealed him “doctrine of the orthodox one (sunna) resting on the authority of the alliance” (umma). That god warned him about what happens when end of the world comes, and Zhang Daoling reformed degenerated doctrines of taoism, like Mohammed introduced monotheism again that had its roots in arabic lands in the worshipping of stones etc. but those rites become polytheistic and monotheistic religion was forgotten in arab lands until Mohammed reintroduced it, according to islamic history. Zhang Daoling also introduced to the people “official pantheon of taoist gods” which taoists should worship, like Mohammed introduced the one and only God Allah to people. Zhang Daoling forbid “pagan” practices like animal sacrifices although taoism itself is polytheistic pagan religion, like Mohammed forbid pagan practices. Zhang Dhaoling is considered the spiritual author of a book, Xianger, although this book was collected after his death. In this book is how people will gain immortality and rules how to remake society that is according to rules of tao/dao, society that is not based on desire of wealth and fame but fear and respect of heaven. Mohammed is the author of book Koran, although that book was collected after his death, in Koran is how people get to paradise to gain immortal life and how to live pious life on earth and fear and obey Allah. Dhaoling also founded “Way/path (sharia) of celestial masters”, god Taishang Laojun ordered Dhaoling to get rid of world of decadence and establish new state consisting of chosen people. That was what Mohammed was doing too. The name celestial master was given by god to Dhaoling and his son and then his son etc. descendants from then on. Zhang Dhaoling either died or not died but ascend to heaven. Mohammed also died but he ascend in half between heaven and earth in his coffin, according to one tradition, although his coffin was firmly on earth until mongol conquest and mongols took away Mohammed s remains from his grave.
Taoism not only merged military leadership and religious leadership in celestial masters, taoism also began persecuting competing religion, buddhism, and declared sort of “holy war” against it. In China different religions were tolerated more or less, traditionally, so when taoists began persecuting buddhists it was something new perhaps in China, and aggressive expansion policy through military conquest to spread religion more than start a war because of political gains was also something new in China perhaps, and aggressive policy to convert other people to taoists that were not originally taoists also. Islam also used military conquest for religious reasons and used aggression and damnation against competing religions, christianity and judaism.
And then is the case of grandson of Zhang Dhaoling, Zhang Lu and how his life story is like Husain ibn Ali. Members of Zhang Lu s family and relatives were killed by warlord Liu Zhang because of quarrel about pledge of loyalty (which was reason of death of Ali and his family members and relatives). But Zhang Lu itself was not killed like Ali, he surrended to another warlord Cao Cao who was cruel ruler, opposite of “right guided” Lu, and Lu lived one year after his surrender.
Taoism also was divided to to competing sects, one which is majority, and another that is minority but based on succession of celestial masters.
Taoist sect Zhengyi Dao, it is like Shia islam, it is based on rule of celestial masters (imams) through generations, it is the minority sect, in its temples people prostrate during praying in front of priests, there is religious fasting days, even its religious feasts are like shia religious feasts, the zhai and jiao. Jiao is like Ashura, three day period feast, “much of ritual is performed by priests in temple, but can involve religious processions through city, musical performances and mass offering in front of temple”. Although in islam the there is mass gathering in front of mosque perhaps, not mass offering. And zhai is like Dhu al-Hijjah and Eid al-Adha.

The Yellow turban rebellion happened in China second century AD. The leader of rebellion received holy book from pagan god that was the same god, Laotze risen to god status, that was giving instructions to Zhang Daoling 40 years earlier. They used yellow turban or headscarf because they revered “Yellow emperor”, mythical ruler, that ascend to heaven riding a dragon. The book from heaven that was given to rebel leader “heavenly general” is called Taipingjing - “Book of great peace” or “Black scarf/turban book of great peace”. There were at least three versions of Taipingjing, and all of them were just about same book with slightly different name and slightly different content perhaps, and collectively all three were called “Book of great peace” or “Black turban book of great peace”. This book from heaven was received from pagan god who had different names but he was Laotze founder of taoism who had risen to status of god. The turban in the holy book is black because black is color of water In chinese “wuxing” theory. The tao religion is the “the way/path (tao) of water”, and black is the color of water, moon and planet Venus in wuxing. In flag of islam is moon and Venus, and black flags are used by muslim warriors. In taoism is “black command flag” that gives help from gods for example in battle. In the book by al-Tirmidhi “Shamaa-il Tirmidhi” is mentioned and in other hadith collections too that Mohammed and his companions wore black turbans, although in Tirmidhi also is one account that Mohammed wore yellow turban. The Tao - “way/path of water”, which is the description of taoism religion, can be descripted in one word in arabic - sharia - path to oasis. Also the seal of prophet is mentioned in this book of al-Tirmidhi and that it was some kind of mole, and his grandson Ali declared Mohammed to be prophet because this mole was seal of the prophets. Zhang Lu, grandson of Zhang Dhaoling (who received revelations from god and spread the message of taoism) had special seal from which people recognised Zhang Lu and respected him. This story of black turban of Mohammed and his companions (and yellow turban too) and seal of prophet that Mohammed s grandson Ali declared that mole was seal of prophethood, is in the same book, al-Timidri s “Virtues of Prophet”. Black (and yellow) turbans and seal of Mohammed that his grandson Ali declared Mohammed was seal of prophets both came from taoism? The 5 precepts of taoism are 5 moral instructions and orders for taoists. In islam is 5 pillars of islam. The 3 taoist qualities that taoist must have are humility, harmony, and openness. The first, humility/humble = muslim. In netpage nearingthewhitelight wordpress com “The analogy of water in Tao te ching” Sara Khan, how taoist text is similar to koran verse 41:34. The flowing water metaphor (way of water / Tao) of taoism is principal text in taoism, perhaps similar in importance like shahada is in islam. “The 3 taoist qualities of water that we should learn” exploringyourmind com. Lots of comparison has been done between buddhism and sufism, but what about comparison between sufism and taoism?
There is book “Popular religious movements and heterodox sects in chinese history”, Seiwert, Xisha. It s part of taoism section is available at Google books.

There is " gospel of Mary" available at two small fragments and in Berlin codex. It is gnostic text where “gnosis is in full” so it cannot be early text that is dated sometimes as early as 90 AD onward. Gnostic texts evolved over time markedly, sometimes when early quotations and fragments of gnostic texts are compared to later gnostic texts that have survived, scholars have noted that although writings have same title and same themes, texts have different content, and almost nothing can be known about content from early versions of those gnostic texts except titles of texts and those fragments that have survived. In gospel of Thomas early greek fragments seem to lacking gnostic content from later full surviving version. So gospel of Mary in Berlin codex is 5th century version of that gnostic text, which was gnostic text from the beginning as two fragments show (and gnostic texts were often written in the style of greek philosophy dialogue texts). That gnostic texts evolved over time was typical in them. That Mary Magdalene, jewish woman, who perhaps did not know how to write aramaic, would had done lectures based on greek philosophy is so pure imagination that perhaps the first part of gospel of Mary was torn away because even people of those times knew it was too impossible. In the first sentences of gospel of Mary seems to be taoist influence, it is claimed, from Tao te ching chapter 34. If there really is taoist influence, that means that there was some knowledge of taoism in 5th century in the middle east.
Two early fragments of gospel of Mary also show that this text evolved between those fragments and Berlin codex version, 5th century version is more “feministic” than early fragments, which show that status of women changed in the course 200 years, because christianity become dominant from 4th century onward and improved women s rights, so that gnostic text was changed to suit the fashion of its times.

There was so called celestial master tradition in taoism, there were four early celestial masters who were mainly religious leaders, and one of them, Zhang Dhaoling, started tradition where celestial masters become both political leaders and rulers and at the same time religious leaders, there were four of those ruler/religious leader celestial masters including Zhang Dhaoling, the last fourth one Zhang Lu disappeared in time so that he is not even included among celestial masters list although he received that title from his father. After that taoism and China went to disarray for couple hundred years. In islam is four principal caliphs, after them political islamic world went to disarray state.
In early taoism is Taipingjing, Book of Great Peace, very important, with slightly different names. Emperor Ai / Aidi, and emperor Aidi changed his name to “August emperor of great peace” 5 BCE. At first emperor Chengdi (32-7 BCE) met celestial master Gan Zhonkge who presented to him Taipingjing, and Gan Zhongke claimed that a divine messenger being called “Master of red essence” from Emperor of Heaven gave him that heavenly book. (In Mohammed s travel to heaven he encounters Jesus who has reddish face). But then confucian religious scholar Liu Xiang accused Gan Zhongke for deceiving authorities and seducing people with false religious doctrine, and Zhongke was put to jail where he died. But he had disciple called Xia Heliang who then become successful religious leader and the message of Taipingling was at short time very popular, even emperor noticed it, but then Xia Heliang had opponent, confucian religious scholar Liu Xin, son of Liu Xiang, and confucian advisers of emperor Aidi arranged that also Xia Heliang was arrested and executed. After that his followers were exiled far away. This happened during circa year 0 BCE/0 AD. Is that story quite similar to what happened to John the Baptist and Jesus? It happened in almost same time, and even the name of emperor is “emperor August”, when in same time in Rome was also emperor Augustus. But because the meaning of english word “august” is respected and impressive and distinguished etc. it is possible that this similarity in names is just because of translation to english. Although early chinese history is messy, for example Taipingjing book thing appeared many times, the story is the same, only name of the person who receives the book change and name of the book is slightly different. The “emperor August” reveals which way influence come, in Rome sure was emperor Augustus those times, but this similarity is possible just a translation of chinese word to english “August” which has many meanings. Chinese taoist history of those times is messy, with slightly different names given to same people, or even multiple persons doing same things, like those who received Taipingjing book, name of person of that story changes, and story happens at slightly different time and place in China, but story remains the same in taoist history. Roman historians wrote that jews and christians were expelled from Rome early 40s AD or then 49 AD because of their messiah (Christ), and that he was crucified. Those stories what happened to taoists during time of emperor August, when have they survived to modern days in written form? Everyone who reads history of taoism of those (0-250 AD) times notices how messy it is. This “emperor August” was a special extra honorary title which he had, he was emperor Ai / Aidi in chinese history.
The similarity of names Augustus/August may be simply because of chinese was translated to english and actually names of emperors “August” Ai/Aidi and Augustus has no connection. Also the story of Gan Zhongke and Xia Heliang may be only superficial similarities to John the Baptist and Jesus, all this is just coincidence of similar events what happens to rebels in authorative society everywhere.
But one thing may be common: That in China near year 0 AD and in palestine near year 0 AD began movement that new era has begun. Has this something to do with star of Bethlehem? If star of Bethlehem was supernova or nova, and two supernovas and one nova are candidates for star of Bethlehem during 10 - 0 AD, that new star (or more than one new star, it is possible that for example in gospel of Matthew is two stellar events with few years apart) gave birth of not only events in Palestine but in China too, when new star (or stars) was sign that new era has begun. The names celestial masters, book of celestial peace etc. that chinese had those times, may be pointing towards stellar events.
In Rome three historians wrote that in arabian peninsula was unrest because people saw signs in the sky that prophesied king of the world who is jewish. Some of those three historians noticed signs in the sky, some only noticed messianic prophecy.
There is a post “The star of Bethlehem” in the Robin Hood Coop Discourse netpages.

There is mistake in previous post, star of Bethlehem appeared during years 10 - 0 BCE, not 10 - 0 AD. AD is writing mistake, it should be BCE. Taoism has yearly festivals “Mid-autumn festival”, “Nine emperor gods festival” and “Double ninth festival”, those three festivals are close to each other and linked. Those festivals have similarities to Ramadan.